Analysis of matched geographical areas to study potential links between environmental exposure to oil refineries and non-Hodgkin lymphoma mortality in Spain

Rebeca Ramis, Peter Diggle, Elena Boldo, Javier Garcia-Perez, Pablo Fernandez-Navarro, Gonzalo Lopez-Abente

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Emissions from refineries include a wide range of substances, such as chrome, lead, nickel, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, benzene, dioxins and furans, all of which are recognized by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as carcinogens.Various studies have shown an association between non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and residence in the vicinity of industrial areas; however, evidence of specific association between refineries and residence in the vicinity has been suggested but not yet established.The aim of this study is to investigate potential links between environmental exposure to emissions from refineries and non-Hodgkin lymphoma mortality in Spain.The spatial distribution of NHL in Spain has an unusual pattern with regions some showing higher risk than others.Methods: We designed an analysis of matched geographical areas to examine non-Hodgkin lymphoma mortality in the vicinity of the 10 refineries sited in Spain over the period 1997-2006. Population exposure to refineries was estimated on the basis of distance from town of residence to the facility in a 10 km buffer.We defined 10 km radius areas to perform the matching, accounting for population density, level of industrialization and socio-demographic factors of the area using principal components analysis.For the matched towns we evaluated the risk of NHL mortality associated with residence in the vicinity of the refineries and with different regions using mixed Poisson models. Then we study the residuals to assess a possible risk trend with distance.Results: Relative risks (RRs) associated with exposure showed similar values for women and for men, 1.09 (0.97-1.24) and 1.12 (0.99-1.27). RRs for two regions were statistically significant: Canary Islands showed an excess of risk of 1.35 (1.05-1.72) for women and 1.50 (1.18-1.92) for men, whilst Galicia showed an excess of risk of 1.35 (1.04-1.75) for men, but not significant excess for women.Conclusions: The results suggest a possible increased risk of NHL mortality among populations residing in the vicinity of refineries; however, a potential distance trend has not been shown. Regional effects in the Canary Islands and Galicia are significantly greater than the regional average.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number4
JournalInternational Journal of Health Geographics
Volume11
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 6 2012
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Environmental Exposure
Spain
Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma
Oils
Mortality
Furans
International Agencies
Carcinogens
Dioxins
Oil
Lymphoma
Refinery
Arsenic
Population Density
Benzene
Principal Component Analysis
Nickel
Cadmium
Principal component analysis
Spatial distribution

Keywords

  • Matched analysis
  • Mortality
  • Non-hodgkin lymphoma
  • Pollution
  • Refinery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science(all)
  • Business, Management and Accounting(all)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

Analysis of matched geographical areas to study potential links between environmental exposure to oil refineries and non-Hodgkin lymphoma mortality in Spain. / Ramis, Rebeca; Diggle, Peter; Boldo, Elena; Garcia-Perez, Javier; Fernandez-Navarro, Pablo; Lopez-Abente, Gonzalo.

In: International Journal of Health Geographics, Vol. 11, 4, 06.02.2012.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ramis, Rebeca ; Diggle, Peter ; Boldo, Elena ; Garcia-Perez, Javier ; Fernandez-Navarro, Pablo ; Lopez-Abente, Gonzalo. / Analysis of matched geographical areas to study potential links between environmental exposure to oil refineries and non-Hodgkin lymphoma mortality in Spain. In: International Journal of Health Geographics. 2012 ; Vol. 11.
@article{a75fb5191b94424788e9d90826cbdfa9,
title = "Analysis of matched geographical areas to study potential links between environmental exposure to oil refineries and non-Hodgkin lymphoma mortality in Spain",
abstract = "Background: Emissions from refineries include a wide range of substances, such as chrome, lead, nickel, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, benzene, dioxins and furans, all of which are recognized by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as carcinogens.Various studies have shown an association between non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and residence in the vicinity of industrial areas; however, evidence of specific association between refineries and residence in the vicinity has been suggested but not yet established.The aim of this study is to investigate potential links between environmental exposure to emissions from refineries and non-Hodgkin lymphoma mortality in Spain.The spatial distribution of NHL in Spain has an unusual pattern with regions some showing higher risk than others.Methods: We designed an analysis of matched geographical areas to examine non-Hodgkin lymphoma mortality in the vicinity of the 10 refineries sited in Spain over the period 1997-2006. Population exposure to refineries was estimated on the basis of distance from town of residence to the facility in a 10 km buffer.We defined 10 km radius areas to perform the matching, accounting for population density, level of industrialization and socio-demographic factors of the area using principal components analysis.For the matched towns we evaluated the risk of NHL mortality associated with residence in the vicinity of the refineries and with different regions using mixed Poisson models. Then we study the residuals to assess a possible risk trend with distance.Results: Relative risks (RRs) associated with exposure showed similar values for women and for men, 1.09 (0.97-1.24) and 1.12 (0.99-1.27). RRs for two regions were statistically significant: Canary Islands showed an excess of risk of 1.35 (1.05-1.72) for women and 1.50 (1.18-1.92) for men, whilst Galicia showed an excess of risk of 1.35 (1.04-1.75) for men, but not significant excess for women.Conclusions: The results suggest a possible increased risk of NHL mortality among populations residing in the vicinity of refineries; however, a potential distance trend has not been shown. Regional effects in the Canary Islands and Galicia are significantly greater than the regional average.",
keywords = "Matched analysis, Mortality, Non-hodgkin lymphoma, Pollution, Refinery",
author = "Rebeca Ramis and Peter Diggle and Elena Boldo and Javier Garcia-Perez and Pablo Fernandez-Navarro and Gonzalo Lopez-Abente",
year = "2012",
month = "2",
day = "6",
doi = "10.1186/1476-072X-11-4",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "11",
journal = "International Journal of Health Geographics",
issn = "1476-072X",
publisher = "BioMed Central",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Analysis of matched geographical areas to study potential links between environmental exposure to oil refineries and non-Hodgkin lymphoma mortality in Spain

AU - Ramis, Rebeca

AU - Diggle, Peter

AU - Boldo, Elena

AU - Garcia-Perez, Javier

AU - Fernandez-Navarro, Pablo

AU - Lopez-Abente, Gonzalo

PY - 2012/2/6

Y1 - 2012/2/6

N2 - Background: Emissions from refineries include a wide range of substances, such as chrome, lead, nickel, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, benzene, dioxins and furans, all of which are recognized by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as carcinogens.Various studies have shown an association between non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and residence in the vicinity of industrial areas; however, evidence of specific association between refineries and residence in the vicinity has been suggested but not yet established.The aim of this study is to investigate potential links between environmental exposure to emissions from refineries and non-Hodgkin lymphoma mortality in Spain.The spatial distribution of NHL in Spain has an unusual pattern with regions some showing higher risk than others.Methods: We designed an analysis of matched geographical areas to examine non-Hodgkin lymphoma mortality in the vicinity of the 10 refineries sited in Spain over the period 1997-2006. Population exposure to refineries was estimated on the basis of distance from town of residence to the facility in a 10 km buffer.We defined 10 km radius areas to perform the matching, accounting for population density, level of industrialization and socio-demographic factors of the area using principal components analysis.For the matched towns we evaluated the risk of NHL mortality associated with residence in the vicinity of the refineries and with different regions using mixed Poisson models. Then we study the residuals to assess a possible risk trend with distance.Results: Relative risks (RRs) associated with exposure showed similar values for women and for men, 1.09 (0.97-1.24) and 1.12 (0.99-1.27). RRs for two regions were statistically significant: Canary Islands showed an excess of risk of 1.35 (1.05-1.72) for women and 1.50 (1.18-1.92) for men, whilst Galicia showed an excess of risk of 1.35 (1.04-1.75) for men, but not significant excess for women.Conclusions: The results suggest a possible increased risk of NHL mortality among populations residing in the vicinity of refineries; however, a potential distance trend has not been shown. Regional effects in the Canary Islands and Galicia are significantly greater than the regional average.

AB - Background: Emissions from refineries include a wide range of substances, such as chrome, lead, nickel, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, benzene, dioxins and furans, all of which are recognized by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as carcinogens.Various studies have shown an association between non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and residence in the vicinity of industrial areas; however, evidence of specific association between refineries and residence in the vicinity has been suggested but not yet established.The aim of this study is to investigate potential links between environmental exposure to emissions from refineries and non-Hodgkin lymphoma mortality in Spain.The spatial distribution of NHL in Spain has an unusual pattern with regions some showing higher risk than others.Methods: We designed an analysis of matched geographical areas to examine non-Hodgkin lymphoma mortality in the vicinity of the 10 refineries sited in Spain over the period 1997-2006. Population exposure to refineries was estimated on the basis of distance from town of residence to the facility in a 10 km buffer.We defined 10 km radius areas to perform the matching, accounting for population density, level of industrialization and socio-demographic factors of the area using principal components analysis.For the matched towns we evaluated the risk of NHL mortality associated with residence in the vicinity of the refineries and with different regions using mixed Poisson models. Then we study the residuals to assess a possible risk trend with distance.Results: Relative risks (RRs) associated with exposure showed similar values for women and for men, 1.09 (0.97-1.24) and 1.12 (0.99-1.27). RRs for two regions were statistically significant: Canary Islands showed an excess of risk of 1.35 (1.05-1.72) for women and 1.50 (1.18-1.92) for men, whilst Galicia showed an excess of risk of 1.35 (1.04-1.75) for men, but not significant excess for women.Conclusions: The results suggest a possible increased risk of NHL mortality among populations residing in the vicinity of refineries; however, a potential distance trend has not been shown. Regional effects in the Canary Islands and Galicia are significantly greater than the regional average.

KW - Matched analysis

KW - Mortality

KW - Non-hodgkin lymphoma

KW - Pollution

KW - Refinery

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84856565857&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84856565857&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1186/1476-072X-11-4

DO - 10.1186/1476-072X-11-4

M3 - Article

VL - 11

JO - International Journal of Health Geographics

JF - International Journal of Health Geographics

SN - 1476-072X

M1 - 4

ER -