Analgesic properties of loperamide differ following systemic and local administration to rats after spinal nerve injury

C. Chung, A. F. Carteret, A. D. McKelvy, M. Ringkamp, F. Yang, T. V. Hartke, X. Dong, S. N. Raja, Y. Guan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: The analgesic properties and mechanisms of loperamide hydrochloride, a peripherally acting opioid receptor agonist, in neuropathic pain warrant further investigation. Methods: We examined the effects of systemic or local administration of loperamide on heat and mechanical hyperalgesia in rats after an L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL). Results: (1) Systemic loperamide (0.3-10 mg/kg, subcutaneous in the back) dose dependently reversed heat hyperalgesia in SNL rats, but did not produce thermal analgesia. Systemic loperamide (3 mg/kg) did not induce thermal antinociception in naïve rats; (2) systemic loperamide-induced anti-heat hyperalgesia was blocked by pretreatment with intraperitoneal naloxone methiodide (5 mg/kg), but not by intraperitoneal naltrindole (5 mg/kg) or intrathecal naltrexone (20 μg/10 μL); (3) local administration of loperamide (150 μg), but not vehicle, into plantar or dorsal hind paw tissue induced thermal analgesia in SNL rats and thermal antinociception in naïve rats; (4) the analgesic effect of intraplantar loperamide (150 μg/15 μL) in SNL rats at 45 min, but not 10 min, post-injection was blocked by pretreatment with an intraplantar injection of naltrexone (75 μg/10 μL); (5) systemic (3.0 mg/kg) and local (150 μg) loperamide reduced the exaggerated duration of hind paw elevation to noxious pinprick stimuli in SNL rats. Intraplantar injection of loperamide also decreased the frequency of pinprick-evoked response in naïve rats. Conclusions: These findings suggest that both systemic and local administration of loperamide induce an opioid receptor-dependent inhibition of heat and mechanical hyperalgesia in nerve-injured rats, but that local paw administration of loperamide also induces thermal and mechanical antinociception.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1021-1032
Number of pages12
JournalEuropean Journal of Pain (United Kingdom)
Volume16
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2012

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

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