Background: The efficacy of perioperative intravenous magnesium administration on postoperative opioid use, opioid-related side effects (e.g., nausea and vomiting) and pain are uncertain, as randomized controlled trials on this topic have reported disparate results. The objective of this systematic review is to determine if perioperative magnesium reduces opioid use, opioid-related side effects, and postoperative pain. Methods: An electronic search was conducted using the Library of Medicine's PubMed and EMBASE databases. Included studies consisted of randomized controlled trials in an adult population with a clearly defined comparison of perioperative intravenous magnesium administration to a control with a documented assessment of opioid usage and postoperative pain. Relevant data was abstracted from included studies. Pooled estimates for weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained for our primary outcome (opioid usage) using the Cochrane Collaboration's RevMan version 4.2.7 (Cochrane Collaboration; Oxford, United Kingdom). WMD and odds ratios (OR) were calculated using a random effects model. Results: The literature search ultimately yielded 22 trials, enrolling 1177 (599 magnesium, 578 control) patients, who were included in the analysis. A significant decrease in morphine usage by those patients who received magnesium was noted (WMD = -7.40; 95% CI: -9.40 to -5.41, p < 0.00001). Perioperative magnesium administration was not associated with a difference in postoperative nausea or vomiting (RR = 0.76; 95% CI: 0.52 to 1.09, p = 0.14). The pooled visual analog scores for pain at 4-6 hours after surgery were significantly less in those patients who received magnesium surgery (WMD = -0.67; 95% CI: -1.12 to -0.23, p = 0.003); however, there was no difference in pain scores at 20-24 hours after surgery (WMD = -0.25; 95% CI: -0.62 to 0.71, p = 0.17).
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||Middle East Journal of Anesthesiology|
|State||Published - Feb 1 2013|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine