An overview of co-morbidities and the development of pressure ulcers among older adults

Efraim Jaul, Jeremy Barron, Joshua P. Rosenzweig, Jacob Menczel

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article


Background: The prevalence of pressure ulcers particularly in the frail older adult population continues to be high and very costly especially in those suffering from chronic diseases and has brought a higher awareness to comprehensive, preventive and therapeutic measures for treatment of pressure ulcers. Internal risk factors highlighted by comorbidities play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of pressure ulcers. Main body: Focusing on the impact of common chronic diseases (comorbidities) in aging on pressure ulcers (e.g., cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, chronic pulmonary diseases, renal diseases and neurodegenerative disorders) and the significant complicating conditions e.g., anemia, infectious diseases, malnutrition, hospitalization, incontinence and polypharmacy, frailty and disability becomes important in developing a more complete, inclusive and multidisciplinary approach to prevention of PU in older patients. Objective: To describe chronic and acute conditions which are risk factors in elderly patients for developing PU. Methods: We present an overview of comorbidities seen with PU in three diverse patient locations. The inclusion criteria are sites (community, acute hospital and long term facilities), older patients, chronic diseases and pressure ulcers grade 2 and over. Using a recently developed conceptual framework accepted by European and National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panels, we examined chronic diseases to identify the risk factors of chronic conditions and complicating conditions which potentially influence risk for PU development. Conclusion: Multiple chronic diseases and complicating factors which associated with immobility, tissue ischemia, and undernutrition are caused to PU in community settings, hospitals, and nursing facilities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number305
JournalBMC Geriatrics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 11 2018



  • Chronic diseases comorbidities
  • Older patients, pathogenesis
  • Pressure ulcer (PU)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geriatrics and Gerontology

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