An external evaluation of the Diarrhea Alleviation through zinc and ORS Treatment (DAZT) program in Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh, India

Laura M. Lamberti, Sunita Taneja, Sarmila Mazumder, Amnesty LeFevre, Robert E. Black, Christa L.Fischer Walker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background To address inadequate coverage of oral rehydration salts (ORS) and zinc supplements for the treatment of diarrhea among children under-five, the Diarrhea Alleviation through Zinc and ORS Treatment (DAZT) program was carried out from 2011-2013 in Gujarat and from 2011-2014 in Uttar Pradesh (UP), India. The program focused on improving the diarrhea treatment practices of public and private sector providers. Methods We conducted cross-sectional household surveys in program districts at baseline and endline and constructed state-specific logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations to assess changes in ORS and zinc treatment during the program period. Results Between baseline and endline, zinc coverage increased from 2.5% to 22.4% in Gujarat and from 3.1% to 7.0% in UP; ORS coverage increased from 15.3% to 39.6% in Gujarat but did not change in UP. In comparison to baseline, children with diarrhea in the two- weeks preceding the endline survey had higher odds of receiving zinc treatment in both Gujarat (odds ratio, OR = 11.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) 6.4-19.3) and UP (OR = 2.4; 95% CI 1.4-3.9), but the odds of receiving ORS only increased in Gujarat (OR = 3.6; 95% CI 2.7-4.8; UP OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.7-1.2). Seeking care outside the home, especially from a public sector source, was associated with higher odds of receiving ORS and zinc. Conclusions During the duration of the DAZT program, there were modest improvements in the treatment of diarrhea among young children. Future programs should build upon and accelerate this trend with continued investment in public and private sector provider training and supply chain sustainability, in addition to targeted caregiver demand generation activities.Background To address inadequate coverage of oral rehydration salts (ORS) and zinc supplements for the treatment of diarrhea among children under-five, the Diarrhea Alleviation through Zinc and ORS Treatment (DAZT) program was carried out from 2011-2013 in Gujarat and from 2011-2014 in Uttar Pradesh (UP), India. The program focused on improving the diarrhea treatment practices of public and private sector providers. Methods We conducted cross-sectional household surveys in program districts at baseline and endline and constructed state-specific logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations to assess changes in ORS and zinc treatment during the program period. Results Between baseline and endline, zinc coverage increased from 2.5% to 22.4% in Gujarat and from 3.1% to 7.0% in UP; ORS coverage increased from 15.3% to 39.6% in Gujarat but did not change in UP. In comparison to baseline, children with diarrhea in the two- weeks preceding the endline survey had higher odds of receiving zinc treatment in both Gujarat (odds ratio, OR = 11.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) 6.4-19.3) and UP (OR = 2.4; 95% CI 1.4-3.9), but the odds of receiving ORS only increased in Gujarat (OR = 3.6; 95% CI 2.7-4.8; UP OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.7-1.2). Seeking care outside the home, especially from a public sector source, was associated with higher odds of receiving ORS and zinc. Conclusions During the duration of the DAZT program, there were modest improvements in the treatment of diarrhea among young children. Future programs should build upon and accelerate this trend with continued investment in public and private sector provider training and supply chain sustainability, in addition to targeted caregiver demand generation activities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number020409
JournalJournal of global health
Volume5
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 2015

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Policy
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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