An evaluation of the Fondo de Inclusión Social Energético program to promote access to liquefied petroleum gas in Peru

Suzanne L. Pollard, Kendra N. Williams, Carolyn J. O'Brien, Abigail Winiker, Elisa Puzzolo, Josiah L. Kephart, Magdalena Fandiño-Del-Rio, Carla Tarazona-Meza, Matthew R. Grigsby, Marilú Chiang, William Checkley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


Introduction: Over 80% of rural households in Peru use solid fuels as their primary source of domestic energy, which contributes to several health problems. In 2016, 6.7 million Peruvians were living in rural areas. The Fondo de Inclusión Social Energético (FISE) LPG Promotion Program, which began in 2012 and is housed under the Ministry of Energy and Mining, is a government-sponsored initiative aimed at reducing use of solid fuels by increasing access to clean fuel for cooking to poor Peruvian households. Methods: We conducted a mixed methods study incorporating data from publicly available records and reports, a community survey of 375 households in Puno (the province with the largest number of FISE beneficiary households), and in-depth interviews with community members and key stakeholders. We used the Reach, Effectiveness – Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework to guide our data collection and analysis efforts. In a sample of 95 households, we also measured 48-hour area concentrations and personal exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Results: The FISE LPG promotion program has achieved high geographical reach; the program is currently serving households in 100% of districts in Peru. Households with access to electricity may be participating at a higher level than households without electricity because the program is implemented primarily by electricity distributors. In a sample of 95 households, FISE beneficiaries experienced a reduction in kitchen concentrations of PM2.5; however, there were no differences in personal exposures, and both kitchen and personal exposures were above the WHO intermediate target for indoor air quality. Among the 375 households surveyed, stove stacking with biomass fuels was reported in >95% of both beneficiary and non-beneficiary households, with fewer than 5% reporting exclusive use. In-depth interviews suggest that the complexity of the enrollment process and access to LPG distribution points may be key barriers to participating in FISE. Conclusion: The FISE LPG Program has achieved high reach and its targeted subsidy and surcharge-based financing structure represent a potentially feasible and sustainable model for other government programs. However, the prevalence of stove stacking among FISE beneficiaries remains high. There is a need for improved communication channels between program implementers and beneficiaries. FISE should also consider expanding the mobile LPG network and community delivery service to reduce physical barriers and indirect costs of LPG acquisition. Finally, increasing the value of LPG vouchers to completely cover one or two tanks a month, or alternatively, introducing behavior change strategies to reduce monthly LPG usage, may facilitate the transition to exclusive LPG use.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)82-93
Number of pages12
JournalEnergy for Sustainable Development
StatePublished - Oct 2018


  • Adoption
  • Biomass fuels
  • Clean cooking
  • LPG
  • Program evaluation
  • RE-AIM

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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