Amphiregulin promotes the proliferation of trophoblast cells during preimplantation development of porcine embryos

J. H. Lee, E. Lee, D. Biswas, C. S. Jeung, G. S. Lee, S. H. Hyun, E. B. Jeung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Our objective was to investigate the effects of in vitro culture (IVC) medium supplemented with amphiregulin (AREG) on the preimplantation embryonic development of porcine (Genus: Sus domestica, Species: Landrace) embryos derived from in vitro fertilization (IVF) and parthenogenetic activation (PA). In vitro fertilization and PA embryos at the 1-cell stage were cultured in IVC medium supplemented with 0, 0.5, 5, or 50 ng/mL AREG for 7 d. There were significantly greater total numbers of cells in blastocysts of IVF and PA embryos cultured with 50 ng/mL AREG compared with that of controls. In vitro fertilization and PA embryos were then cultured in NCSU-23 medium supplemented with 50 ng/mL AREG on Days 1 through 7, Days 1 through 3 (early stage), or Days 4 through 7 (late stage), or without AREG. There were significantly greater numbers of trophoblast cells in the late-stage and full-term groups of IVF and PA embryos than in the early-stage and control groups. The presence of AREG protein in IVF-derived blastocysts was detected using a polyclonal AREG antibody and indirect immunofluorescence. Amphiregulin protein was localized in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction, we detected the expression of AREG mRNA in all developmental stages of IVF and PA embryos; however, the expression level varied according to stage. Thus, the incubation of porcine IVF and PA embryos in AREG-supplemented culture medium mainly at the late preimplantation stage increases the numbers of trophoblast cells.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1023-1031
Number of pages9
Issue number8
StatePublished - Nov 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Amphiregulin
  • Pig
  • Preimplantation embryo
  • Trophoblast proliferation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Small Animals
  • Food Animals
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Equine


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