The physiological application of amperometric adenosine triphosphate (ATP) microbiosensors for characterizing the stimulus-response at rat carotid bodies superfused with high potassium concentrations, during normoxic hypercapnia, and during hypoxia is demonstrated using the peripheral arterial chemoreceptors in the carotid body of rats as a model system. Amperometric microbiosensors based on glucose oxidase (GOD) and hexokinase (HEX) immobilized within a polymer matrix at the surface of Pt disk microelectrodes (diameter: 25 μm) are positioned at a distance of approximately 100 μm above the carotid body surface for detecting extracellular ATP. A linear calibration function of ATP microbiosensors in the physiologically relevant concentration range of 0-40 μM ATP enables quantitative detection of ATP released at the carotid body surface in response to physiological stimuli. It is shown that these stimuli induce extracellular ATP release from the carotid body at levels of 4-10 μM. Other electroactive neurotransmitters such as, e.g., catecholamines are coreleased by the carotid body at hypercapnic, hypoxic and high-potassium stimulus, are simultaneously detected utilizing a dual-electrode assembly with an ATP microbiosensor and a second bare channel providing a colocalized reference measurement for ATP quantification.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Analytical Chemistry