Anhydramnios caused by early anuria is thought to be universally fatal due to pulmonary hypoplasia. Bilateral renal agenesis and early fetal renal failure leading to anhydramnios constitute early pregnancy renal anhydramnios (EPRA). There have been successful reports of amnioinfusions to promote lung growth in the setting of EPRA. Some of these successfully treated EPRA fetuses have survived the neonatal period, undergone successful dialysis, and subsequently received a kidney transplant. Conversely, there are no reports of untreated EPRA survivors. This early success of amnioinfusions to treat EPRA justifies a rigorous prospective trial. The objective of this study is to provide a review of what is known about fetal therapy for EPRA and describe the Renal Anhydramnios Fetal Therapy trial. We review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and genetics of EPRA. Furthermore, we have performed systematic review of case reports of treated EPRA. We describe the ethical framework, logistical challenges, and rationale for the current single center (NCT03101891) and planned multicenter trial.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Obstetrics and Gynecology