Background: Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) has been applied to treat gastric motility disorders for decades. This study was designed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of GES for visceral hypersensitivity in a rodent model of functional dyspepsia (FD). Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rat pups at 10-days old received 0.1% iodoacetamide (IA) daily for 6 days. The experiments were performed when the rats reached 8-11 weeks of age, and visceral hypersensitivity was established. Then, GES parameters were optimized and the chronic effects of GES on gastric hypersensitivity were assessed by electromyogram (EMG). Naloxone (3 mg/kg), D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 (CTOP, 1 mg/kg), and anti-NGF (16 μg/kg) were individually intraperitoneally injected to investigate opioid and nerve growth factor (NGF) mechanisms. Tissues were analyzed for NGF expression. Key Results: In the IA-treated rats, the visceromotor response to gastric distension was significantly increased, and both acute GES with optimized stimulation parameters (0.25 seconds on, 0.25 seconds off, 100 Hz, 0.25 ms, 6 mA) and chronic GES (7 days, 2 hours/day) normalized gastric hypersensitivity. The inhibitory effect of GES on gastric hypersensitivity was blocked by naloxone and CTOP. Anti-NGF normalized EMG responses in IA-treated rats. The expressions of NGF in the tissues of IA-treated rats were dramatically increased, and these increases were suppressed with GES. Conclusions and Inferences: GES with optimized parameters improves gastric hypersensitivity induced by neonatal treatment of IA mediated peripherally by suppressing NGF and via the opioid mechanism involving the µ receptor. GES as a potential therapy for treating visceral pain may be explored in clinical studies.
- functional dyspepsia
- gastric electrical stimulation
- nerve growth factor
- opioid pathway
- visceral hypersensitivity
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrine and Autonomic Systems