Ambient air pollution as a mediator in the pathway linking race/ethnicity to blood pressure elevation: The multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA)

Lanxin Song, Genee S. Smith, Sara D. Adar, Wendy S. Post, Eliseo Guallar, Ana Navas-Acien, Joel D. Kaufman, Miranda R. Jones

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Racial/ethnic disparities in blood pressure and hypertension have been evident in previous studies, as were associations between race/ethnicity with ambient air pollution and those between air pollution with hypertension. The role of air pollution exposure to racial/ethnic differences in hypertension has not been explored. Objective: To assess the potential mediating effects of ambient air pollution on the association between race/ethnicity and blood pressure levels. Methods: We studied 6,463 White, Black, Hispanic and Chinese adults enrolled across 6 US cities. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured at Exam 1 (2000–2002) and Exam 2 (2002–2004). Household-level annual average concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), oxides of nitrogen (NOX), and ozone (O3) for the year 2000 were estimated for participants. Results: The difference in SBP levels by race/ethnicity that was related to higher PM2.5 concentrations compared with White men (“indirect associations”) was 0.3 (95% CI: 0.1, 0.6) mmHg for Black men, 0.3 (95% CI: 0.1, 0.6) mmHg for Hispanic men and 1.0 (95% CI: 0.2, 1.8) mmHg for Chinese men. Findings were similar although not statistically significant for women. PM2.5 did not mediate racial/ethnic differences in DBP. Indirect associations were significant for O3 for SBP among women and men and for DBP among men. In contrast, racial/ethnic disparities were attenuated due to exposure to NOX. Conclusion: Racial disparities in blood pressure were reduced after accounting for PM2.5 and ozone while increased after accounting for NOX.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number108776
JournalEnvironmental research
Volume180
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2020

Fingerprint

Blood pressure
Air Pollution
ethnicity
Air pollution
ambient air
Atherosclerosis
atmospheric pollution
blood
Blood Pressure
hypertension
Ozone
racial disparity
ozone
Nitrogen Oxides
Hypertension
pollution exposure
Hispanic Americans
Particulate Matter
particulate matter
oxide

Keywords

  • Air pollution
  • Blood pressure
  • Disparities
  • Hypertension
  • Race/ethnicity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Environmental Science(all)

Cite this

@article{b0900e3efb4d4dbe86ecc4d804bd03ef,
title = "Ambient air pollution as a mediator in the pathway linking race/ethnicity to blood pressure elevation: The multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA)",
abstract = "Background: Racial/ethnic disparities in blood pressure and hypertension have been evident in previous studies, as were associations between race/ethnicity with ambient air pollution and those between air pollution with hypertension. The role of air pollution exposure to racial/ethnic differences in hypertension has not been explored. Objective: To assess the potential mediating effects of ambient air pollution on the association between race/ethnicity and blood pressure levels. Methods: We studied 6,463 White, Black, Hispanic and Chinese adults enrolled across 6 US cities. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured at Exam 1 (2000–2002) and Exam 2 (2002–2004). Household-level annual average concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), oxides of nitrogen (NOX), and ozone (O3) for the year 2000 were estimated for participants. Results: The difference in SBP levels by race/ethnicity that was related to higher PM2.5 concentrations compared with White men (“indirect associations”) was 0.3 (95{\%} CI: 0.1, 0.6) mmHg for Black men, 0.3 (95{\%} CI: 0.1, 0.6) mmHg for Hispanic men and 1.0 (95{\%} CI: 0.2, 1.8) mmHg for Chinese men. Findings were similar although not statistically significant for women. PM2.5 did not mediate racial/ethnic differences in DBP. Indirect associations were significant for O3 for SBP among women and men and for DBP among men. In contrast, racial/ethnic disparities were attenuated due to exposure to NOX. Conclusion: Racial disparities in blood pressure were reduced after accounting for PM2.5 and ozone while increased after accounting for NOX.",
keywords = "Air pollution, Blood pressure, Disparities, Hypertension, Race/ethnicity",
author = "Lanxin Song and Smith, {Genee S.} and Adar, {Sara D.} and Post, {Wendy S.} and Eliseo Guallar and Ana Navas-Acien and Kaufman, {Joel D.} and Jones, {Miranda R.}",
year = "2020",
month = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.envres.2019.108776",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "180",
journal = "Environmental Research",
issn = "0013-9351",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Ambient air pollution as a mediator in the pathway linking race/ethnicity to blood pressure elevation

T2 - The multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA)

AU - Song, Lanxin

AU - Smith, Genee S.

AU - Adar, Sara D.

AU - Post, Wendy S.

AU - Guallar, Eliseo

AU - Navas-Acien, Ana

AU - Kaufman, Joel D.

AU - Jones, Miranda R.

PY - 2020/1

Y1 - 2020/1

N2 - Background: Racial/ethnic disparities in blood pressure and hypertension have been evident in previous studies, as were associations between race/ethnicity with ambient air pollution and those between air pollution with hypertension. The role of air pollution exposure to racial/ethnic differences in hypertension has not been explored. Objective: To assess the potential mediating effects of ambient air pollution on the association between race/ethnicity and blood pressure levels. Methods: We studied 6,463 White, Black, Hispanic and Chinese adults enrolled across 6 US cities. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured at Exam 1 (2000–2002) and Exam 2 (2002–2004). Household-level annual average concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), oxides of nitrogen (NOX), and ozone (O3) for the year 2000 were estimated for participants. Results: The difference in SBP levels by race/ethnicity that was related to higher PM2.5 concentrations compared with White men (“indirect associations”) was 0.3 (95% CI: 0.1, 0.6) mmHg for Black men, 0.3 (95% CI: 0.1, 0.6) mmHg for Hispanic men and 1.0 (95% CI: 0.2, 1.8) mmHg for Chinese men. Findings were similar although not statistically significant for women. PM2.5 did not mediate racial/ethnic differences in DBP. Indirect associations were significant for O3 for SBP among women and men and for DBP among men. In contrast, racial/ethnic disparities were attenuated due to exposure to NOX. Conclusion: Racial disparities in blood pressure were reduced after accounting for PM2.5 and ozone while increased after accounting for NOX.

AB - Background: Racial/ethnic disparities in blood pressure and hypertension have been evident in previous studies, as were associations between race/ethnicity with ambient air pollution and those between air pollution with hypertension. The role of air pollution exposure to racial/ethnic differences in hypertension has not been explored. Objective: To assess the potential mediating effects of ambient air pollution on the association between race/ethnicity and blood pressure levels. Methods: We studied 6,463 White, Black, Hispanic and Chinese adults enrolled across 6 US cities. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured at Exam 1 (2000–2002) and Exam 2 (2002–2004). Household-level annual average concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), oxides of nitrogen (NOX), and ozone (O3) for the year 2000 were estimated for participants. Results: The difference in SBP levels by race/ethnicity that was related to higher PM2.5 concentrations compared with White men (“indirect associations”) was 0.3 (95% CI: 0.1, 0.6) mmHg for Black men, 0.3 (95% CI: 0.1, 0.6) mmHg for Hispanic men and 1.0 (95% CI: 0.2, 1.8) mmHg for Chinese men. Findings were similar although not statistically significant for women. PM2.5 did not mediate racial/ethnic differences in DBP. Indirect associations were significant for O3 for SBP among women and men and for DBP among men. In contrast, racial/ethnic disparities were attenuated due to exposure to NOX. Conclusion: Racial disparities in blood pressure were reduced after accounting for PM2.5 and ozone while increased after accounting for NOX.

KW - Air pollution

KW - Blood pressure

KW - Disparities

KW - Hypertension

KW - Race/ethnicity

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