Involvement of serous cavity specimens by alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) is a rare event and only a few case reports have been reported in the literature, with conflicting cytomorphologic patterns. Herein, we report on a 41-year-old man with no significant past medical history who presented with pancytopenia and shortness of breath and was found to have widely metastatic sinonasal alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, including involvement of the pleura. The pleural fluid specimen was cellular and contained ARMS cells in small-to-medium sized three-dimensional fragments that resembled an adenocarcinoma or mesothelioma, and numerous single cells were seen in the background. The individual tumor cells demonstrated variable morphology; all were large, with varying degree of cytoplasm, and multinucleated cells were commonly seen in the background. The cells were negative for calretinin and claudin-4 and were positive for myogenin, confirming the diagnosis. Given the cytomorphologic diversity of ARMS seen in serous fluid specimens, patient history and the use of confirmatory immunostains are essential.
- alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma
- pleural fluid
- sarcomatous effusions
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine