Alternatives to oral estrogen replacement: Transdermal patches, percutaneous gels, vaginal creams and rings, implants, and other methods of delivery

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Alternatives to oral estrogen replacement, including the transdermal patch, deliver estradiol in a constant manner, produce more physiologic estrone and estradiol levels than oral therapy, and avoid the first-pass effect on hepatic protein synthesis. Transdermal patches and estradiol implants have been demonstrated to produce favorable lipid profiles, prevent bone loss, relieve vasomotor symptoms, and improve urogenital atrophy. Vaginal estrogen is an effective treatment for vaginal atrophy. The advantages and disadvantages of each of the hormonal alternatives to oral estrogen replacement are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)271-297
Number of pages27
JournalObstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America
Volume21
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 1 1994
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology

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