Alternatives in toxicology

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Alternatives in toxicology are broadly de?ned as toxicological and/or pharmacological tests or experimental approaches that alone or in combination (i) do not utilize animals, or replace the use of higher species animals with lower species animals to obtain equivalent or better scienti?c information, (ii) utilize fewer animals to produce equivalent or better scienti?c results than did previous animal-intensive testing, and (iii) minimize pain and distress to experimental animals. Alternatives have a distinguished history within toxicology (1). An informal survey of papers and posters presented at scienti?c meetings indicates that substantial scienti?c resources are devoted to the development and use of alternatives (2).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationToxicology and Regulatory Process
PublisherCRC Press
Number of pages16
ISBN (Electronic)9780849362194
ISBN (Print)0824723856, 9780824723859
StatePublished - Jan 1 2006

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Alternatives in toxicology'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this