Seven subjects with Kallmann's syndrome were studied to determine whether they had disturbances of fluid homeostasis. Simultaneous measurements of urine and plasma osmolality (Uosm and Posm, respectively) were made during free access to fluids. The Uosm-Posm relationship was abnormal in five patients on at least one occasion. Patient 2 was frequently overhydrated (Posm ≤ 280 mosmol/kg) and patient 5 excreted a dilute urine when his Posm was 290 mosmol/kg. The three subjects (1, 5, and 7) tending to have an increased Posm (≥300 mosmol/kg) were able to concentrate their urine (Uosm < 800 mosmol/kg) and denied polyuria and polydipsia. Their elevated Posms could be explained by impairment of thirst, rather than increased excretion of water, because the patients concentrated their urines at normal Posms during fluid deprivation. The osmotic threshold for vasopressin release was decreased (Posm = 270.6 mosmol/kg) in one patient and increased (Posm 3s 294 mosmol/kg) in two others of the seven patients. The elevated osmotic threshold was not due to chronic hyperosmolality or a generalized defect in vasopressin secretion. In the patient with the highest osmotic threshold (Posm = 296 mosmol/kg) and Posms between 289-301 mosmol/kg during free access to fluid, the osmotic threshold decreased to only 293 mosmol/kg after 6 weeks of adequate hydration and desmopressin acetate. However, in response to hypotension induced by trimethaphan, he increased his plasma vasopressin from 1-26 μU/ml. In conclusion, some patients with Kallmann's syndrome may have osmoreceptor dysfunction and abnormal thirst regulation, indicating more extensive hypothalamic involvement than previously appreciated.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Biochemistry, medical