Altered cortical activation associated with mirror overflow driven by non-dominant hand movement in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Yu Luo, Christine Chen, Jack H. Adamek, Deana Crocetti, Stewart H. Mostofsky, Joshua B. Ewen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Mirror overflow is involuntary movement that accompanies unilateral voluntary movement on the opposite side of the body, and is commonly seen in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Children with ADHD show asymmetry in mirror overflow between dominant and non-dominant hand, yet there are competing mechanistic accounts of why this occurs. Using EEG during a sequential, unimanual finger-tapping task, we found that children with ADHD exhibited significantly more mirror overflow than typically developing (TD) controls, especially during the tapping of the non-dominant hand. Furthermore, source-level EEG oscillation analysis revealed that children with ADHD showed decreased alpha (8–12 Hz) event-related desynchronization (ERD) compared with controls in both hemispheres, but only during tapping of the non-dominant hand. Moreover, only the ERD ipsilateral to the mirror overflow during non-dominant hand movement correlated with both magnitude of overflow movements and higher ADHD symptom severity (Conners ADHD Hyperactivity/Impulsiveness scale) in children with ADHD. TD controls did not show these relationships. Our findings suggest that EEG differences in finger-tapping in ADHD are related primarily to voluntary movement in the non-dominant hand. Our results are also consistent with the Ipsilateral Corticospinal Tract (CST) Hypothesis, which posits that the atypical persistence of mirror overflow in ADHD may originate in the sensorimotor areas ipsilateral to mirror overflow and be transmitted via non-decussating CST fibers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number110433
JournalProgress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry
Volume112
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 10 2022

Keywords

  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
  • Event-related desynchronization
  • Hand skill asymmetry
  • Mirror overflow

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Biological Psychiatry

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