IDH1/2 mutations occur in up to 70% of low-grade gliomas and secondary glioblastomas. Mutation of these enzymes reduces the wildtype function of the enzyme (conversion of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate) while conferring a new enzymatic function, the production of D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2-HG) from α-ketoglutarate (α-KG). However, it is unclear how these enzymatic changes contribute to tumorigenesis. Here, we discuss the recent studies that demonstrate how IDH1/2 mutation may alter the metabolism and epigenome of gliomas, how these changes may contribute to tumor formation, and opportunities they might provide for molecular targeting. Metabolomic studies of IDH1/2 mutant cells have revealed alterations in glutamine, fatty acid, and citrate synthesis pathways. Additionally, D-2-HG produced by IDH1/2 mutant cells can competitively inhibit α-KG-dependent enzymes, including histone demethylases and DNA hydroxylases, potentially leading to a distinct epigenetic phenotype. Alterations in metabolism and DNA methylation present possible mechanisms of tumorigenesis. Recent attempts to improve outcomes for glioma patients have resulted in incremental gains. Studies of IDH1/2 mutations have provided mechanistic insights into tumorigenesis and potential avenues for therapeutic intervention. Further study of IDH1/2 mutations might allow for improved therapeutic strategies.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research