Alterations in gut hormone signaling are a likely contributing factor to the metabolic disturbances associated with overweight/obesity as they coordinate the timing of feeding behavior, absorption, and utilization of nutrients. These hormones are released in response to food intake, or follow a circadian or anticipatory pattern of secretion that is independent of nutrient stimulation. The aim of this study was to identify the degree to which high-fat diet-induced obesity would alter the daily rhythm of gut peptide plasma levels (glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1], peptide YY [PYY], insulin or amylin [AMY]) or meal-induced levels in the middle of the light or dark cycle. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet (OBESE) or chow (LEAN), implanted with jugular catheters, and blood samples were taken every 2 h throughout the light/dark cycle while freely feeding or after an Ensure liquid meal. We found that even when OBESE and LEAN animals ate the same kcals and have a similar pattern of food intake, there is a difference in both the levels and rhythm of plasma gut peptides. GLP-1 and PYY are higher during the light cycle in LEAN animals and AMY is higher in the OBESE group throughout the light/dark cycle. There was also a differential response of plasma gut signals after the Ensure meal, even though the composition and amount of intake of the meal were the same in both groups. These changes occur prior to the high-fat diet induced loss of glycemic control and may be a target for early intervention. Impact statement: The aim of this study was to test if obesity would alter the daily rhythm of gut peptides or meal-induced levels in the middle of the light or dark cycle. We found that even when animals are eating the same amount (in kcal) of food that the obese animals have altered daily rhythms and meal-induced gut peptide levels. In particular, we are the first to show that obesity induces increases in peptide YY levels during the light cycle and amylin remains high throughout the light and dark cycle in obese animals. These changes occurred prior to a loss of glycemic control. Thus, the rhythm of gut peptides could be used as an early indicator of later and more serious metabolic disturbances and may be a target for early intervention.
- Gut peptides
- nutrient induced
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)