Ninety-nine patients with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) received HLA-identical bone marrow transplants (BMTs) from sibling donors after preparation with high doses of busulfan and cyclophosphamide. Forty-nine patients were transplanted in first complete remission (CR), and 50 patients were transplanted in second and third CR and early relapse. Fifty-three recieved one of three regimens containing primarily low-dose cyclophosphamide (group I) for graft-v-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis; since March 1983, 46 patients received intravenous (IV) cyclosporine (group II). After December 1983, only cytomegalovirus (CMV)-seronegative blood products were used in appropriate patients, and since April 1984 patients seropositive for herpes-simplex virus (HSV) and CMV received high-dose acyclovir prophylaxis. For patients transplanted in first CR, there was a significantly lower incidence of acute GVHD (P = .005) and deaths related to GVHD and interstitial pneumonitis (P = .001) in patients in group II. This was reflected in an improved Kaplan-Meier probability of disease-free survival (DFS) in the 22 patients transplanted in group II as compared with the 27 patients in group I (64% ± 10% v 30% ± 9%, P = .017). The probability of remaining in remission was slightly lower in group II (82% ± 9% v 94% ± 6%, P = .479). For patients transplanted in second and third CR and early relapse, the incidence of acute GVHD (P = .026) and deaths related to GVHD and interstitial pneumonitis was significantly lower in group II (P = .029); the probability of remaining in remission was also less (47% ± 15% v 91% ± 15%, P = .022). However, the probability of DFS was not significantly different between the two groups (26% ± 10% v 35% ± 18%, P = .957). We conclude that transplantation for patients in first CR who received IV cyclosporine therapy is effective treatment; patients with more refractory disease treated with the same cyclosporine regimen (group II) had a lower incidence of GVHD than those treated in group I, but survival did not improve because of an increase in the number of relapses and other nonleukemic complications.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology