Introduction The expansion of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program requires more data about the factors affecting the effectiveness of treatment, especially behavioral data such as smoking and alcohol use among patients. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol consumption and identify related factors among MMT patients in the Vietnamese rural mountainside. Methods We interviewed 241 MMT patients in two clinics in Tuyen Quang, a mountainous province in Vietnam. Patients were asked to report the smoking status (current smoker or not), nicotine dependence (by Fagerström test for nicotine dependence - FTND) and alcohol use (by using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test – AUDIT-C). EuroQol-5 dimensions-5 levels (EQ-5D-5L) and EQ-Visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) were employed to measure health-related quality of life. Multivariate logistic and Tobit regressions were used to identify the associated factors. Results The majority of respondents were current smokers (75.7%) and a low proportion were hazardous drinkers (18.3%). People receiving treatment in a rural clinic (OR = 0.45; 95%CI = 0.22–0.92) and had problems in usual activities (OR = 0.20; 95%CI = 0.06–0.70) were less likely to be smokers. Q-VAS score (Coef. = 0.03; 95%CI = 0.02–0.05) and having problems in mobility (Coef. = 0.72; 95%CI = 0.03–1.42) was found to be associated with the increase of nicotine dependence. In terms of alcohol drinking, people with other jobs were more likely to drink hazardously compared to unemployed patients (OR = 2.86; 95%CI = 1.20–6.82). Similarly, patients having higher duration of MMT had higher likelihood of being hazardous drinkers (OR = 1.07; 95%CI = 1.01–1.13). Conclusions This study highlights the low rate of alcohol abusers but a considerably high proportion of current smokers among MMT patients in the rural mountainside area. Alcohol and tobacco counseling programs combined with social and family support also play an essential role in alcohol and tobacco control. In addition, implementing mass community-based behavioral change campaigns to reduce drug addiction-related stigmatization should also be prioritized.
- Drug use
- Methadone maintenance treatment
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Psychiatry and Mental health