Aging is characterized by significant immune remodeling at both cellular and molecular levels, also known as immunosenescence. Older adults often manifest a chronic low-grade inflammatory phenotype. These age-related immune system changes have increasingly been recognized not only to lead to immune functional decline and increased vulnerability to infections, but also to play an important role in many chronic conditions such as frailty in older adults. In addition to sex as an important biological factor, chronic viral infections including that by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) are all known to have major impact on the aging immune system. This article provides an overview of our current understanding of aging immunity, sex, inflammation, frailty, and HIV and CMV infections.
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