Age differences in cognitive performance: A study of cultural differences in Historical Context

Natalia Ojeda, Eleni Aretouli, Javier Peña, David J. Schretlen

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Ethnicity and cultural experience can affect neuropsychological performance, but they are rarely assessed in historical context. Attention measures are considered strongly biologically determined and therefore potentially culture-fair. In this study, we assessed the cross-cultural equivalence of Spanish and English versions of the Trail Making Test (TMT; Reitan, 1958, Perceptual and Motor Skills, 8, 271-276) and the Brief Test of Attention (BTA; Schretlen et al., 1996, The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 10, 80-89) in two large samples of Americans (N = 203) and Spaniards (N = 213), divided into younger and older subgroups. The older Spaniards lived under Franco's political regime (1936-1975), whereas the Americans never experienced such repression. Overall, TMT performance was culture-sensitive, whereas BTA performance was not. However, when both groups were stratified by age, cultural differences in TMT performance were restricted to older participants, suggesting that historical experience across generations might have contributed to the observed differences in cognitive performance. Even such basic cognitive processes as attention, working memory, and resource sharing might be shaped to some degree by historical experiences that contribute to cultural differences.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)104-115
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Neuropsychology
Volume10
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2016

    Fingerprint

Keywords

  • Brief Test of Attention
  • Trail Making Test
  • attention
  • cohort effects
  • cross-cultural neuropsychology
  • historical experience

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Behavioral Neuroscience

Cite this