Age at menarche and metabolic markers for type 2 diabetes in premenopausal women: The BioCycle study

Liwei Chen, Cuilin Zhang, Edwina Yeung, Aijun Ye, Sunni L. Mumford, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Enrique F. Schisterman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Context: Early age at menarche has been linked to an elevated risk of type 2 diabetes. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Objective: Our objective was to examine associations between age at menarche and type 2 diabetes risk factors. Design, Participants, and Setting: The BioCycle Study followed 253 healthy premenopausal women from the general population (Buffalo, NY) for one to two menstrual cycles. Main Outcome Measures: Age at menarche was self-reported. Body mass index and waist circumference were measured by trained personnel. Total body and trunk fat were measured by dualenergy x-ray absorptiometry. Fasting glucose, insulin, highly sensitive C-reactive protein, and SHBG levels were measured up to eight times per cycle. Insulin resistance (IR) and β-cell function were evaluated using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-IR and HOMA-β. Results: The mean age at menarche was 12.5 ± 1.2 yr. After adjustment for age, race, education, and physical activity, early menarche (≤12 yr) was significantly associated with an increase of 1.35 kg/m2 in body mass index (P = 0.01), 2.52% in percent total body fat (P = 0.004), 3.02% in percent trunk fat (P = 0.004), 0.15 μIU/ml in (log)insulin (P = 0.02), 0.15 U in (log)HOMA-IR (P = 0.03), and 0.16 U in (log)HOMA-β (P = 0.01) compared with average menarche (12-14 yr). No associations were found for SHBG or highly sensitive C-reactive protein. Conclusions: Early onset of menarche is associated with unfavorable metabolic phenotypes compared with average onset of menarche in healthy premenopausal women, including reduced insulin sensitivity and β-cell function and greater total and trunk fat.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Volume96
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2011
Externally publishedYes

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Menarche
Medical problems
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Insulin
Fats
Insulin Resistance
Homeostasis
C-Reactive Protein
Body Mass Index
Buffaloes
Waist Circumference
Menstrual Cycle
Education
Personnel
Adipose Tissue
Glucose
X rays
Fasting
X-Rays
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Endocrinology
  • Biochemistry, medical
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Cite this

Age at menarche and metabolic markers for type 2 diabetes in premenopausal women : The BioCycle study. / Chen, Liwei; Zhang, Cuilin; Yeung, Edwina; Ye, Aijun; Mumford, Sunni L.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Schisterman, Enrique F.

In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 96, No. 6, 06.2011.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Chen, Liwei ; Zhang, Cuilin ; Yeung, Edwina ; Ye, Aijun ; Mumford, Sunni L. ; Wactawski-Wende, Jean ; Schisterman, Enrique F. / Age at menarche and metabolic markers for type 2 diabetes in premenopausal women : The BioCycle study. In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2011 ; Vol. 96, No. 6.
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abstract = "Context: Early age at menarche has been linked to an elevated risk of type 2 diabetes. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Objective: Our objective was to examine associations between age at menarche and type 2 diabetes risk factors. Design, Participants, and Setting: The BioCycle Study followed 253 healthy premenopausal women from the general population (Buffalo, NY) for one to two menstrual cycles. Main Outcome Measures: Age at menarche was self-reported. Body mass index and waist circumference were measured by trained personnel. Total body and trunk fat were measured by dualenergy x-ray absorptiometry. Fasting glucose, insulin, highly sensitive C-reactive protein, and SHBG levels were measured up to eight times per cycle. Insulin resistance (IR) and β-cell function were evaluated using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-IR and HOMA-β. Results: The mean age at menarche was 12.5 ± 1.2 yr. After adjustment for age, race, education, and physical activity, early menarche (≤12 yr) was significantly associated with an increase of 1.35 kg/m2 in body mass index (P = 0.01), 2.52{\%} in percent total body fat (P = 0.004), 3.02{\%} in percent trunk fat (P = 0.004), 0.15 μIU/ml in (log)insulin (P = 0.02), 0.15 U in (log)HOMA-IR (P = 0.03), and 0.16 U in (log)HOMA-β (P = 0.01) compared with average menarche (12-14 yr). No associations were found for SHBG or highly sensitive C-reactive protein. Conclusions: Early onset of menarche is associated with unfavorable metabolic phenotypes compared with average onset of menarche in healthy premenopausal women, including reduced insulin sensitivity and β-cell function and greater total and trunk fat.",
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T2 - The BioCycle study

AU - Chen, Liwei

AU - Zhang, Cuilin

AU - Yeung, Edwina

AU - Ye, Aijun

AU - Mumford, Sunni L.

AU - Wactawski-Wende, Jean

AU - Schisterman, Enrique F.

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N2 - Context: Early age at menarche has been linked to an elevated risk of type 2 diabetes. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Objective: Our objective was to examine associations between age at menarche and type 2 diabetes risk factors. Design, Participants, and Setting: The BioCycle Study followed 253 healthy premenopausal women from the general population (Buffalo, NY) for one to two menstrual cycles. Main Outcome Measures: Age at menarche was self-reported. Body mass index and waist circumference were measured by trained personnel. Total body and trunk fat were measured by dualenergy x-ray absorptiometry. Fasting glucose, insulin, highly sensitive C-reactive protein, and SHBG levels were measured up to eight times per cycle. Insulin resistance (IR) and β-cell function were evaluated using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-IR and HOMA-β. Results: The mean age at menarche was 12.5 ± 1.2 yr. After adjustment for age, race, education, and physical activity, early menarche (≤12 yr) was significantly associated with an increase of 1.35 kg/m2 in body mass index (P = 0.01), 2.52% in percent total body fat (P = 0.004), 3.02% in percent trunk fat (P = 0.004), 0.15 μIU/ml in (log)insulin (P = 0.02), 0.15 U in (log)HOMA-IR (P = 0.03), and 0.16 U in (log)HOMA-β (P = 0.01) compared with average menarche (12-14 yr). No associations were found for SHBG or highly sensitive C-reactive protein. Conclusions: Early onset of menarche is associated with unfavorable metabolic phenotypes compared with average onset of menarche in healthy premenopausal women, including reduced insulin sensitivity and β-cell function and greater total and trunk fat.

AB - Context: Early age at menarche has been linked to an elevated risk of type 2 diabetes. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Objective: Our objective was to examine associations between age at menarche and type 2 diabetes risk factors. Design, Participants, and Setting: The BioCycle Study followed 253 healthy premenopausal women from the general population (Buffalo, NY) for one to two menstrual cycles. Main Outcome Measures: Age at menarche was self-reported. Body mass index and waist circumference were measured by trained personnel. Total body and trunk fat were measured by dualenergy x-ray absorptiometry. Fasting glucose, insulin, highly sensitive C-reactive protein, and SHBG levels were measured up to eight times per cycle. Insulin resistance (IR) and β-cell function were evaluated using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-IR and HOMA-β. Results: The mean age at menarche was 12.5 ± 1.2 yr. After adjustment for age, race, education, and physical activity, early menarche (≤12 yr) was significantly associated with an increase of 1.35 kg/m2 in body mass index (P = 0.01), 2.52% in percent total body fat (P = 0.004), 3.02% in percent trunk fat (P = 0.004), 0.15 μIU/ml in (log)insulin (P = 0.02), 0.15 U in (log)HOMA-IR (P = 0.03), and 0.16 U in (log)HOMA-β (P = 0.01) compared with average menarche (12-14 yr). No associations were found for SHBG or highly sensitive C-reactive protein. Conclusions: Early onset of menarche is associated with unfavorable metabolic phenotypes compared with average onset of menarche in healthy premenopausal women, including reduced insulin sensitivity and β-cell function and greater total and trunk fat.

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