Advances in the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic tumors and tumor-like lesions

Tsui Lien Mao, Ie Ming Shih

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Background: Gestational trophoblastic tumors and tumor-like lesions are derived from trophoblastic cells and are composed of different trophoblastic subpopulations. Recent histopathological and molecular studies indicate that these trophoblast-related lesions recapitulate the differentiation of normal trophoblast in early placenta development. Objective: To distinguish trophoblastic tumors from other types of neoplastic disease and differential diagnosis among different types of trophoblastic lesion are important as far as treatment plans are concerned. Methods: This article reviews the histopathological features of these trophoblastic lesions and recent advances in the trophoblast-associated markers, which are helpful in differential diagnosis. Results/conclusion: Histopathologic features serve as the basis in the diagnosis of various types of trophoblastic lesion. In difficult cases, a stepwise immunohistochemistry approach, called trophogram, may prove useful in assisting the differential diagnosis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)371-380
Number of pages10
JournalExpert Opinion on Medical Diagnostics
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 1 2009


  • Differential diagnosis
  • Gestational trophoblastic tumor
  • Gynecologic pathology
  • Trophoblastic disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Biochemistry, medical


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