Significant changes in surgical technique, surgical instrumentation, and imaging technology have occurred during the past 20 years. These changes have largely resulted from a better understanding of the pathophysiology of a specific pathologic process, the inflammation of paranasal sinus mucosa. As surgical techniques were adapted to address clinical issues, new instrumentation was developed. Changes in imaging technology were also a result of these and similar issues pressing from other similar medical/surgical fields. The obsolescence of plain-film imaging is being addressed by miniaturization of large and bulky cross-sectional imaging equipment that will gradually become available and embraced by the clinical practice. These changes will bring about greater responsibilities, the foremost of which is vigilance in reducing radiation dose to the patient.
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