The arachidonic acid pathway metabolite 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) contributes to ischemia/reperfusion brain injury. Inhibition of 20-HETE formation can protect the developing brain from global ischemia. Here, we examined whether treatment with the 20-HETE synthesis inhibitor N-hydroxy-N-4-butyl-2-methylphenylformamidine (HET0016) can protect the immature brain from traumatic brain injury (TBI). Male rats at postnatal day 9-10 underwent controlled cortical impact followed by intraperitoneal injection with vehicle or HET0016 (1 mg/kg, 5 min and 3 h post-injury). HET0016 decreased the lesion volume by over 50% at 3 days of recovery, and this effect persisted at 30 days as the brain matured. HET0016 decreased peri-lesion gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α], interleukin-1β [IL-1β]) at 1 day and increased reparative cytokine (IL-4, IL-10) expression at 3 days. It also partially preserved microglial ramified processes, consistent with less activation. HET0016 decreased contralateral hindlimb foot faults and improved outcome on the novel object recognition memory task 30 days after TBI. In cultured BV2 microglia, HET0016 attenuated the lipopolysaccharide-evoked increase in release of TNF-α. Our data show that HET0016 improves acute and long-term histologic and functional outcomes, in association with an attenuated neuroinflammatory response after contusion of an immature rat brain.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Developmental Neuroscience