Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 is a zinc-dependent protease associated with early immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, macrophage recruitment and granuloma formation. We evaluated whether adjunctive inhibition of MMP-9 could improve the response to standard TB treatment in a mouse model that develops necrotic lesions. Six weeks after an aerosol infection with M. tuberculosis, C3HeB/FeJ mice received standard TB treatment (12 weeks) comprising rifampin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide alone or in combination with either anti-MMP-9 antibody, etanercept (positive control) or isotype antibody (negative control) for 6 weeks. Anti-MMP-9 and the isotype control had comparable high serum exposures and expected terminal half-life. The relapse rate in mice receiving standard TB treatment was 46.6%. Compared to the standard TB treatment, relapse rates in animals that received adjunctive treatments with anti-MMP-9 antibody or etanercept were significantly decreased to 25.9% (P = 0.006) and 29.8% (P = 0.019) respectively, but were not different from the arm that received the isotype control antibody (25.9%). Immunostaining demonstrated localization of MMP-9 primarily in macrophages in both murine and human lung tissues infected with M. tuberculosis, suggesting the importance of MMP-9 in TB pathogenesis. These data suggest that the relapse rates in M. tuberculosis-infected mice may be non-specifically improved by administration of antibodies in conjunction with standard TB treatments. Future studies are needed to evaluate the mechanism(s) leading to improved outcomes with adjunctive antibody treatments.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)