Adherence to tuberculosis preventive therapy measured by urine metabolite testing among people with HIV

THRio and TEKO teams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Tuberculosis preventive therapy for people living with HIV is effective, widely recommended, and increasingly prescribed, but completion rates are less than ideal, and adherence is not typically monitored. We sought to quantify adherence to isoniazid preventive therapy using a urine metabolite assay. DESIGN: Two cross-sectional surveys. SETTING: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2008-2009; and Northwest Province, South Africa, 2018-2019. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred and three Brazilian and 93 South African patients attending HIV clinics with active prescriptions for isoniazid preventive therapy MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:: Self-reported isoniazid adherence, paired with semiquantitative measurement of urine isoniazid metabolites. RESULTS: By self-report, 90% of patients [95% confidence interval (CI) 86-93%] reported having taken a dose of isoniazid on the day of enrollment or the preceding day, and 91% (95% CI 87-94%) reported missing an average of one dose or fewer per week. By urine testing, only 65% (95% CI 59-70%) of all patients, and 69% (95% CI 63-74%) of those who reported having taken isoniazid on the current or preceding day, had detectable urine metabolites (expected in 95% of patients at 24 h). Longer time since starting preventive therapy was independently associated with a negative urine test for isoniazid metabolites (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.11 per month of isoniazid, 95% CI 1.05-1.18). CONCLUSION: Adherence to isoniazid preventive therapy among patients with HIV in Brazil and South Africa is inadequate, is overestimated by self-report, and declines with time on treatment. Shorter regimens for TB preventive therapy may improve adherence and completion, but adherence support for all patients may be necessary.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)63-71
Number of pages9
JournalAIDS (London, England)
Volume34
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2020

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Isoniazid
Tuberculosis
HIV
Urine
Confidence Intervals
Therapeutics
South Africa
Self Report
Brazil
Prescriptions
Cross-Sectional Studies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Adherence to tuberculosis preventive therapy measured by urine metabolite testing among people with HIV. / THRio and TEKO teams.

In: AIDS (London, England), Vol. 34, No. 1, 01.01.2020, p. 63-71.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "OBJECTIVES: Tuberculosis preventive therapy for people living with HIV is effective, widely recommended, and increasingly prescribed, but completion rates are less than ideal, and adherence is not typically monitored. We sought to quantify adherence to isoniazid preventive therapy using a urine metabolite assay. DESIGN: Two cross-sectional surveys. SETTING: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2008-2009; and Northwest Province, South Africa, 2018-2019. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred and three Brazilian and 93 South African patients attending HIV clinics with active prescriptions for isoniazid preventive therapy MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:: Self-reported isoniazid adherence, paired with semiquantitative measurement of urine isoniazid metabolites. RESULTS: By self-report, 90{\%} of patients [95{\%} confidence interval (CI) 86-93{\%}] reported having taken a dose of isoniazid on the day of enrollment or the preceding day, and 91{\%} (95{\%} CI 87-94{\%}) reported missing an average of one dose or fewer per week. By urine testing, only 65{\%} (95{\%} CI 59-70{\%}) of all patients, and 69{\%} (95{\%} CI 63-74{\%}) of those who reported having taken isoniazid on the current or preceding day, had detectable urine metabolites (expected in 95{\%} of patients at 24 h). Longer time since starting preventive therapy was independently associated with a negative urine test for isoniazid metabolites (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.11 per month of isoniazid, 95{\%} CI 1.05-1.18). CONCLUSION: Adherence to isoniazid preventive therapy among patients with HIV in Brazil and South Africa is inadequate, is overestimated by self-report, and declines with time on treatment. Shorter regimens for TB preventive therapy may improve adherence and completion, but adherence support for all patients may be necessary.",
author = "{THRio and TEKO teams} and Kendall, {Emily A.} and Betina Durovni and Martinson, {Neil A.} and Solange Cavalacante and Katlego Masonoke and Valeria Saraceni and Limakatso Lebina and Anne Efron and Silvia Cohn and Sandy Chon and Chaisson, {Richard E.} and Dowdy, {David W.} and Golub, {Jonathan E.}",
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AU - THRio and TEKO teams

AU - Kendall, Emily A.

AU - Durovni, Betina

AU - Martinson, Neil A.

AU - Cavalacante, Solange

AU - Masonoke, Katlego

AU - Saraceni, Valeria

AU - Lebina, Limakatso

AU - Efron, Anne

AU - Cohn, Silvia

AU - Chon, Sandy

AU - Chaisson, Richard E.

AU - Dowdy, David W.

AU - Golub, Jonathan E.

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N2 - OBJECTIVES: Tuberculosis preventive therapy for people living with HIV is effective, widely recommended, and increasingly prescribed, but completion rates are less than ideal, and adherence is not typically monitored. We sought to quantify adherence to isoniazid preventive therapy using a urine metabolite assay. DESIGN: Two cross-sectional surveys. SETTING: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2008-2009; and Northwest Province, South Africa, 2018-2019. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred and three Brazilian and 93 South African patients attending HIV clinics with active prescriptions for isoniazid preventive therapy MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:: Self-reported isoniazid adherence, paired with semiquantitative measurement of urine isoniazid metabolites. RESULTS: By self-report, 90% of patients [95% confidence interval (CI) 86-93%] reported having taken a dose of isoniazid on the day of enrollment or the preceding day, and 91% (95% CI 87-94%) reported missing an average of one dose or fewer per week. By urine testing, only 65% (95% CI 59-70%) of all patients, and 69% (95% CI 63-74%) of those who reported having taken isoniazid on the current or preceding day, had detectable urine metabolites (expected in 95% of patients at 24 h). Longer time since starting preventive therapy was independently associated with a negative urine test for isoniazid metabolites (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.11 per month of isoniazid, 95% CI 1.05-1.18). CONCLUSION: Adherence to isoniazid preventive therapy among patients with HIV in Brazil and South Africa is inadequate, is overestimated by self-report, and declines with time on treatment. Shorter regimens for TB preventive therapy may improve adherence and completion, but adherence support for all patients may be necessary.

AB - OBJECTIVES: Tuberculosis preventive therapy for people living with HIV is effective, widely recommended, and increasingly prescribed, but completion rates are less than ideal, and adherence is not typically monitored. We sought to quantify adherence to isoniazid preventive therapy using a urine metabolite assay. DESIGN: Two cross-sectional surveys. SETTING: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2008-2009; and Northwest Province, South Africa, 2018-2019. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred and three Brazilian and 93 South African patients attending HIV clinics with active prescriptions for isoniazid preventive therapy MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:: Self-reported isoniazid adherence, paired with semiquantitative measurement of urine isoniazid metabolites. RESULTS: By self-report, 90% of patients [95% confidence interval (CI) 86-93%] reported having taken a dose of isoniazid on the day of enrollment or the preceding day, and 91% (95% CI 87-94%) reported missing an average of one dose or fewer per week. By urine testing, only 65% (95% CI 59-70%) of all patients, and 69% (95% CI 63-74%) of those who reported having taken isoniazid on the current or preceding day, had detectable urine metabolites (expected in 95% of patients at 24 h). Longer time since starting preventive therapy was independently associated with a negative urine test for isoniazid metabolites (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.11 per month of isoniazid, 95% CI 1.05-1.18). CONCLUSION: Adherence to isoniazid preventive therapy among patients with HIV in Brazil and South Africa is inadequate, is overestimated by self-report, and declines with time on treatment. Shorter regimens for TB preventive therapy may improve adherence and completion, but adherence support for all patients may be necessary.

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