ADHD classification using bag of words approach on network features

Berkan Solmaz, Soumyabrata Dey, A. Ravishankar Rao, Mubarak Shah

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

14 Scopus citations


Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is receiving lots of attention nowadays mainly because it is one of the common brain disorders among children and not much information is known about the cause of this disorder. In this study, we propose to use a novel approach for automatic classification of ADHD conditioned subjects and control subjects using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data of resting state brains. For this purpose, we compute the correlation between every possible voxel pairs within a subject and over the time frame of the experimental protocol. A network of voxels is constructed by representing a high correlation value between any two voxels as an edge. A Bag-of-Words (BoW) approach is used to represent each subject as a histogram of network features; such as the number of degrees per voxel. The classification is done using a Support Vector Machine (SVM). We also investigate the use of raw intensity values in the time series for each voxel. Here, every subject is represented as a combined histogram of network and raw intensity features. Experimental results verified that the classification accuracy improves when the combined histogram is used. We tested our approach on a highly challenging dataset released by NITRC for ADHD-200 competition and obtained promising results. The dataset not only has a large size but also includes subjects from different demography and edge groups. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to propose BoW approach in any functional brain disorder classification and we believe that this approach will be useful in analysis of many brain related conditions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationMedical Imaging 2012
Subtitle of host publicationImage Processing
StatePublished - 2012
Externally publishedYes
EventMedical Imaging 2012: Image Processing - San Diego, CA, United States
Duration: Feb 6 2012Feb 9 2012

Publication series

NameProgress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE
ISSN (Print)1605-7422


OtherMedical Imaging 2012: Image Processing
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Diego, CA


  • ADHD
  • Bag-of-words
  • Functional MRI
  • Network features

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biomaterials
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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