Remote ischemic pre-conditioning (rIPC) has emerged as a potential mechanism to reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury. Clinical data, however, have been mixed, and its physiological basis remains unclear, although it appears to involve release of circulating factor(s) and/or neural pathways. Here, the authors demonstrate that adenosine receptor activation is an important step in initiating human pre-conditioning; that pre-conditioning liberates circulating cardioprotective factor(s); and that exogenous adenosine infusion is able to recapitulate release of this factor. However, blockade of adenosine receptors in ischemic tissue does not block the protection afforded by pre-conditioning. These data have important implications for defining the physiology of human pre-conditioning and its translation to future clinical trials.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine