A 56-yr-old man with severe reflux esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, and a peptic lower esophageal stricture underwent subtotal resection of the Barrett's esophagus with colonic interposition. After the interposition procedure, gastroesophageal reflux was eliminated, as evidenced by absence of clinical and radiographic findings and by the results of a later continuous pH probe recording. Despite the absence of reflux, 8 yr after the colonic interposition the patient was found to have adenocarcinoma in the remnant of the Barrett's esophagus. This case indicates that elimination of gastroesophageal reflux does not necessarily lead to regression of Barrett's mucosa, nor does it prevent development of adenocarcinoma. As a result, patients with Barrett's esophagus should remain under long-term surveillance for dysplasia and adenocarcinoma, even after successful antireflux therapy. If esophagectomy is performed, every attempt should be made to resect all of the esophagus lined by Barrett's mucosa.
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