A number of different methods have been demonstrated which increase the speed of MR acquisition by decreasing the number of sequential phase encodes. The UNFOLD technique is based on time interleaving of k-space lines in sequential images and exploits the property that the outer portion of the field-of-view is relatively static. The differences in spatial sensitivity of multiple receiver coils may be exploited using SENSE or SMASH techniques to eliminate the aliased component that results from undersampling k-space. In this article, an adaptive method of sensitivity encoding is presented which incorporates both spatial and temporal filtering. Temporal filtering and spatial encoding may be combined by acquiring phase encodes in an interleaved manner. In this way the aliased components are alternating phase. The SENSE formulation is not altered by the phase of the alias artifact; however, for imperfect estimates of coil sensitivities the residual artifact will have alternating phase using this approach. This is the essence of combining temporal filtering (UNFOLD) with spatial sensitivity encoding (SENSE). Any residual artifact will be temporally frequency-shifted to the band edge and thus may be further suppressed by temporal low-pass filtering. By combining both temporal and spatial filtering a high degree of alias artifact rejection may be achieved with less stringent requirements on accuracy of coil sensitivity estimates and temporal low-pass filter selectivity than would be required using each method individually. Experimental results that demonstrate the adaptive spatiotemporal filtering method (adaptive TSENSE) with acceleration factor R = 2, for real-time nonbreath-held cardiac MR imaging during exercise induced stress are presented.
- Cardiac imaging
- Parallel MRI
- Rapid imaging
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Radiological and Ultrasound Technology