The history of Down syndrome (DS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a long and complex one, with the first depictions of individuals with DS noted in artifacts almost 3500 years old. In 1866, John Langdon Down first used the scientifically incorrect and disparaging term "mongols" to describe a collection of symptoms he observed in almost 10% of the children he had treated at the Royal Earlswood Asylum, and in 1959, Lejeune et al. discovered that DS was caused by triplication of the 21st chromosome. DS is the most frequent cause of genetically determined intellectual disability (ID) with a live birth rate of 1 in 733 births.
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