In the perioperative period, heart failure is one of the most common conditions requiring evaluation and treatment. Furthermore, heart failure is the most frequently encountered postoperative cardiac complication of noncardiac surgery (1, 2). Postoperatively, acute heart failure (AHF), defined as the rapid onset of symptoms and signs secondary to abnormal cardiac function, often presents in patients with underlying chronic heart failure. However, occasionally, it may present acutely in previously healthy patients. With such prevalence, it is vital for clinicians caring for patients in the perioperative period to be skilled in managing AHF. This chapter discusses acute postoperative heart failure.
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