Acute death associated with Citrobacter freundii infection in an African elephant (Loxodonta africana)

Joaquín Ortega, Juan M. Corpa, José A. Orden, Jorge Blanco, María D. Carbonell, Amalia C. Gerique, Erin Latimer, Gary S. Hayward, Andreas Roemmelt, Thomas Kraemer, Aurore Romey, Labib B. Kassimi, Miguel Casares

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

A 21-year-old male African elephant (Loxodonta africana) died suddenly with no previous medical history. Grossly, there were severe multifocal epicardial and endocardial hemorrhages of the atria and ventricles, hydropericardium, multifocal pleural hemorrhages, and severe pulmonary congestion and edema. Histologically, there was fibrinoid vasculitis and thrombosis in the heart and lung and myocardial necrosis. Citrobacter freundii was isolated in abundance in pure culture from liver and heart samples. Low levels of multiples types of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV-6, EEHV-2B, and EEHV-3A) were detected in spleen samples, but not in heart samples. The levels of EEHV DNA found were much lower than those usually associated with acute EEHV hemorrhagic disease, and many other genomic loci that would normally be found in such cases were evidently below the level of detection. Therefore, these findings are unlikely to indicate lethal EEHV disease. Polymerase chain reaction for encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) and toxicology for oleander (Nerium oleander) were negative. Stress, resulting from recent transport, and antimicrobial therapy may have contributed to the death of this animal.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)632-636
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Volume27
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 28 2015

Keywords

  • Acute death
  • African elephant
  • Citrobacter freundii
  • Loxodonta africana
  • elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

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  • Cite this

    Ortega, J., Corpa, J. M., Orden, J. A., Blanco, J., Carbonell, M. D., Gerique, A. C., Latimer, E., Hayward, G. S., Roemmelt, A., Kraemer, T., Romey, A., Kassimi, L. B., & Casares, M. (2015). Acute death associated with Citrobacter freundii infection in an African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 27(5), 632-636. https://doi.org/10.1177/1040638715596034