Access to medications among adults with type 2 diabetes using pharmacy- or clinic-based medication assistance programs: A systematic review

Lori M. Ward, Desiree B. Pendergrass, Charles C. Chima, Roland J. Thorpe, Marino A. Bruce, Hillary F. Blackburn, Christopher F. Palombo, Bettina M. Beech

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective: The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the literature regarding access to, and utilization of medication for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and pre-post improvements in diabetes outcomes for adults enrolled in clinic- or pharmacy-based medication assistance programs. Data sources: The databases searched were PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, Embase, Ovid HealthSTAR, PapersFirst, and OpenGrey. Study Selection: Databases were searched from the beginning of each database to Feburary 29, 2020. Articles were included if (1) the population of interest was adults 18 years of age or older with a T2D diagnosis, (2) the study addressed access to medication for diabetes patients in a clinic- or pharmacy-based setting, and (3) the study was conducted in the United States. Data extraction: Data extracted from the selected studies included location of study, patient inclusion criteria, sample size, medication assistance program description, and reported diabetes medication access and medication related adherence outcomes. Results: Eleven articles met the inclusion criteria for the study. The mean reduction in glycated hemoglobin level following the use of medication assistance programs ranged from 0.45 to 0.8. Across studies, the mean number of antihyperglycemic medications used by patients in medication assistance programs ranged from 1 to 1.9. Medication adherence was reported at 45% across studies that reported adherence measures. Conclusion: Among the 11 studies identified that assessed access to medication for adults with T2D using clinic- or pharmacy-based medication assistance programs, study findings indicated that many of these programs showed some positive changes in medication access and diabetes-related outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e411-e421
JournalJournal of the American Pharmacists Association
Volume60
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (nursing)
  • Pharmacy
  • Pharmacology

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