Accelerated spatially encoded spectroscopy of arbitrarily shaped compartments using prior knowledge and linear

Algebraic Modeling, Paul A Bottomley, Yi Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Low signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) and long scan times are endemic in spatially localized spectroscopy. While chemical shift imaging (CSI) offers the best SNR efficiency, the minimum scan time is set by the need to acquire a full set of phase-encoding gradients steps (PEs), even if an average spectrum from a multi-voxel compartment would suffice. Moreover, adding voxels to create a compartment-average spectrum post-acquisition sacrifices SNR compared to directly acquiring the spectrum from a correctly sized compartment. Spectroscopy with linear algebraic modeling (SLAM) is a relatively new approach to localization that directly encodes spectra in C arbitrarily prescribed compartments that are segmented from accompanying scout images. SLAM uses a tiny subset (≥C) of the CSI PEs selected from central k-space plus prior knowledge of the compartments, to maximize SNR/volume and greatly reduce scan times. Spectra representing compartment averages are reconstructed by solving a set of C linear simultaneous equations that eliminate unneeded PEs from the standard CSI algorithm. SLAM is further optimized for SNR and compartmental bleed errors, by permitting fractional- instead of integer-stepped gradients. SLAM is amenable to spatial and temporal inhomogeneity corrections, as used routinely in CSI. Combining SLAM with sensitivity encoding (SENSE) techniques from parallel MRI permits replacement of even more of the already-reduced SENSE encoding PEs, for even faster acquisitions. Adoption of the technique in initial cardiac 31P and brain 1H patient studies has demonstrated effective acceleration factors of 4- to 120-fold, SNR efficiency gains of several-fold, and accurate metabolite quantification with respect to reference CSI scans.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)89-104
Number of pages16
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2015


  • chemical shift imaging
  • human studies
  • localization
  • pulse sequences
  • reconstruction techniques
  • SLAM
  • spectroscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Spectroscopy
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biochemistry
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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