Acanthamoeba are opportunistic protozoan parasites that can cause fatal granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, however, the pathogenic mechanisms associated with this disease remain unclear. One of the primary factors in Acanthamoeba encephalitis is the haematogenous spread, followed by invasion of the blood-brain barrier resulting in the transmigration of Acanthamoeba into the central nervous system. In this study, we have used human brain microvascular endothelial cells, which constitute the blood-brain barrier and studied their interactions with Acanthamoeba. Using in vitro cultures, we showed that Acanthamoeba isolates belonging to genotypes T3, T4 and T11, exhibited increased cytotoxicity on human brain microvascular endothelial cells as well as exhibited higher binding and were considered potential pathogens. In contrast, Acanthamoeba isolates belonging to genotypes T2 and T7 exhibited minimal cytotoxicity and significantly less binding to human brain microvascular endothelial cells (P<0.01). Furthermore, exogenous α-mannose inhibited binding but increased cytotoxicity of human brain microvascular endothelial cells. This is the first demonstration of Acanthamoeba interactions with primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells.
- Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis
- Mannose-binding protein
- Pathogenic protozoa
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases