A validated positive chemical ionization GC/MS method for the identification and quantification of amphetamine, opiates, cocaine, and metabolites in human postmortem brain

Ross H. Lowe, Allan J. Barnes, Elin Lehrmann, William J. Freed, Joel Kleinman, Thomas Hyde, Mary M. Herman, Marilyn A. Huestis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

A sensitive and specific method for the simultaneous detection and quantification of amphetamine, opiates, and cocaine and metabolites in human postmortem brain was developed and validated. Analytes of interest included amphetamine, morphine, codeine, 6-acetylmorphine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester, ecgonine ethyl ester, cocaethylene, and anhydroecgonine methyl ester. The method employed ultrasonic homogenization of brain tissue in pH 4.0 sodium acetate buffer and solid phase extraction. Extracts were derivatized with N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide and N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide. Separation and quantification were accomplished on a bench-top positive chemical ionization capillary gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer with selected ion monitoring. Eight deuterated analogs were used as internal standards. Limits of quantification were 50 ng/g of brain. Calibration curves were linear to 1000 ng/g for anhydroecgonine methyl ester and 6-acetylmorphine, and to 2000 ng/g for all other analytes. Accuracy across the linear range of the assay ranged from 90.2 to 112.2%, and precision, as percent relative standard deviation, was less than 16.6%. Quantification of drug concentrations in brain is a useful research tool in neurobiology and in forensic and postmortem toxicology, identifying the type, relative magnitude, and recency of abused drug exposure. This method will be employed to quantify drug concentrations in human postmortem brain in support of basic and clinical research on the physiologic, biochemical, and behavioral effects of drugs in humans.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)175-184
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Mass Spectrometry
Volume41
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2006
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Opiate Alkaloids
amphetamines
metabolites
Amphetamine
Metabolites
Cocaine
Ionization
brain
Brain
esters
Esters
drugs
ionization
Pharmaceutical Preparations
morphine
Forensic Toxicology
toxicology
Sodium Acetate
Codeine
Neurobiology

Keywords

  • Brain
  • Cocaine
  • Drugs of abuse
  • GC/MS
  • Opiates

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Spectroscopy

Cite this

A validated positive chemical ionization GC/MS method for the identification and quantification of amphetamine, opiates, cocaine, and metabolites in human postmortem brain. / Lowe, Ross H.; Barnes, Allan J.; Lehrmann, Elin; Freed, William J.; Kleinman, Joel; Hyde, Thomas; Herman, Mary M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

In: Journal of Mass Spectrometry, Vol. 41, No. 2, 02.2006, p. 175-184.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Lowe, Ross H. ; Barnes, Allan J. ; Lehrmann, Elin ; Freed, William J. ; Kleinman, Joel ; Hyde, Thomas ; Herman, Mary M. ; Huestis, Marilyn A. / A validated positive chemical ionization GC/MS method for the identification and quantification of amphetamine, opiates, cocaine, and metabolites in human postmortem brain. In: Journal of Mass Spectrometry. 2006 ; Vol. 41, No. 2. pp. 175-184.
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