A trial of a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children with and those without HIV infection

Keith P. Klugman, Shabir A. Madhi, Robin E. Huebner, Robert Kohberger, Nontombi Mbelle, Nathaniel Pierce

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory tract infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in young children. We evaluated the efficacy of a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in a randomized, double-blind study in Soweto, South Africa. METHODS: At 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age, 19,922 children received the 9-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine conjugated to a noncatalytic cross-reacting mutant of diphtheria toxin (CRM197), and 19,914 received placebo. All children received Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine. Efficacy and safety were analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle. RESULTS: Among children without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the vaccine reduced the incidence of a first episode of invasive pneumococcal disease due to serotypes included in the vaccine by 83 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 39 to 97; 17 cases among controls and 3 among vaccine recipients). Among HIV-infected children, the efficacy was 65 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 24 to 86; 26 and 9 cases, respectively). Among children without HIV infection, the vaccine reduced the incidence of first episodes of radiologically confirmed alveolar consolidation by 20 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 2 to 35; 212 cases in the control group and 169 in the vaccinated group) in the intention-to-treat analysis and by 25 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 4 to 41; 158 and 119 cases, respectively) in the per-protocol analysis (i.e., among fully vaccinated children). The incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease caused by penicillin-resistant strains was reduced by 67 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 19 to 88; 21 cases in the control group and 7 in the vaccinated group), and that caused by strains resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was reduced by 56 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 16 to 78; 32 and 14 cases, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination with a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine reduced the incidence of radiologically confirmed pneumonia. The vaccine also reduced the incidence of vaccine-serotype and antibiotic-resistant invasive pneumococcal disease among children with and those without HIV infection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1341-1348
Number of pages8
JournalNew England Journal of Medicine
Volume349
Issue number14
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2 2003

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Conjugate Vaccines
Pneumococcal Vaccines
Virus Diseases
HIV
Vaccines
Confidence Intervals
Incidence
Diphtheria Toxin
Haemophilus influenzae type b
Control Groups
Intention to Treat Analysis
Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination Trimethoprim
South Africa
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Double-Blind Method
Respiratory Tract Infections
Penicillins
Pneumonia
Vaccination
Placebos

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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A trial of a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children with and those without HIV infection. / Klugman, Keith P.; Madhi, Shabir A.; Huebner, Robin E.; Kohberger, Robert; Mbelle, Nontombi; Pierce, Nathaniel.

In: New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 349, No. 14, 02.10.2003, p. 1341-1348.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Klugman, Keith P. ; Madhi, Shabir A. ; Huebner, Robin E. ; Kohberger, Robert ; Mbelle, Nontombi ; Pierce, Nathaniel. / A trial of a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children with and those without HIV infection. In: New England Journal of Medicine. 2003 ; Vol. 349, No. 14. pp. 1341-1348.
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AU - Klugman, Keith P.

AU - Madhi, Shabir A.

AU - Huebner, Robin E.

AU - Kohberger, Robert

AU - Mbelle, Nontombi

AU - Pierce, Nathaniel

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N2 - BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory tract infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in young children. We evaluated the efficacy of a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in a randomized, double-blind study in Soweto, South Africa. METHODS: At 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age, 19,922 children received the 9-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine conjugated to a noncatalytic cross-reacting mutant of diphtheria toxin (CRM197), and 19,914 received placebo. All children received Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine. Efficacy and safety were analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle. RESULTS: Among children without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the vaccine reduced the incidence of a first episode of invasive pneumococcal disease due to serotypes included in the vaccine by 83 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 39 to 97; 17 cases among controls and 3 among vaccine recipients). Among HIV-infected children, the efficacy was 65 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 24 to 86; 26 and 9 cases, respectively). Among children without HIV infection, the vaccine reduced the incidence of first episodes of radiologically confirmed alveolar consolidation by 20 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 2 to 35; 212 cases in the control group and 169 in the vaccinated group) in the intention-to-treat analysis and by 25 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 4 to 41; 158 and 119 cases, respectively) in the per-protocol analysis (i.e., among fully vaccinated children). The incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease caused by penicillin-resistant strains was reduced by 67 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 19 to 88; 21 cases in the control group and 7 in the vaccinated group), and that caused by strains resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was reduced by 56 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 16 to 78; 32 and 14 cases, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination with a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine reduced the incidence of radiologically confirmed pneumonia. The vaccine also reduced the incidence of vaccine-serotype and antibiotic-resistant invasive pneumococcal disease among children with and those without HIV infection.

AB - BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory tract infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in young children. We evaluated the efficacy of a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in a randomized, double-blind study in Soweto, South Africa. METHODS: At 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age, 19,922 children received the 9-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine conjugated to a noncatalytic cross-reacting mutant of diphtheria toxin (CRM197), and 19,914 received placebo. All children received Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine. Efficacy and safety were analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle. RESULTS: Among children without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the vaccine reduced the incidence of a first episode of invasive pneumococcal disease due to serotypes included in the vaccine by 83 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 39 to 97; 17 cases among controls and 3 among vaccine recipients). Among HIV-infected children, the efficacy was 65 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 24 to 86; 26 and 9 cases, respectively). Among children without HIV infection, the vaccine reduced the incidence of first episodes of radiologically confirmed alveolar consolidation by 20 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 2 to 35; 212 cases in the control group and 169 in the vaccinated group) in the intention-to-treat analysis and by 25 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 4 to 41; 158 and 119 cases, respectively) in the per-protocol analysis (i.e., among fully vaccinated children). The incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease caused by penicillin-resistant strains was reduced by 67 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 19 to 88; 21 cases in the control group and 7 in the vaccinated group), and that caused by strains resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was reduced by 56 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 16 to 78; 32 and 14 cases, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination with a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine reduced the incidence of radiologically confirmed pneumonia. The vaccine also reduced the incidence of vaccine-serotype and antibiotic-resistant invasive pneumococcal disease among children with and those without HIV infection.

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