The management of clinically localized renal masses suspicious for renal cell carcinoma varies, partially because of gaps in the evidence base. We conducted a systematic review to summarize research gaps for the evaluation of composite models for predicting malignancy; use of percutaneous renal sampling for diagnosis; and comparative effectiveness of surgery, thermal ablation, and active surveillance. A total of 147 studies, published in 150 articles, were identified. To promote improved patient care and health outcomes, we recommend incorporation of emerging biomarkers into validated composite models, standardization of biopsy protocols, standard reporting of clinical stage, and performance of prospective studies with objective selection criteria.
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