The authors describe a robotic surgical system that has been designed to create femoral cavities that are precisely shaped and positioned for implantation of uncemented prostheses. This robotics system creates cavities with a dimensional accuracy more than 50 times greater than broached cavities, exceeds the tolerances to which implants are manufactured, and does not produce gaps that prevent bone ingrowth. A canine study was undertaken to evaluate the prosthesis fit and placement achieved by employing a surgical robot to prepare the femur. This study compared the results achieved on 15 dogs undergoing total hip replacement with manual broaching techniques and 25 dogs undergoing robotically assisted surgery. Among the 25 dogs, which ranged in age from 2 1/2 to 11 years, there were no deaths no infections, and no intraoperative complications. Human applications of this technique are also considered.