A sham case-control study of effectiveness of DTP-Hib-hepatitis B vaccine against rotavirus acute gastroenteritis in Kenya

Sammy Khagayi, Jacqueline E. Tate, Reuben Onkoba, Umesh Parashar, Frank Odhiambo, Deron Burton, Kayla Laserson, Daniel R. Feikin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: In many GAVI-eligible countries, effectiveness of new vaccines will be evaluated by case-control methodology. To inform the design and assess selection bias of a future case-control study of rotavirus vaccine effectiveness (VE) in western Kenya, we performed a sham case-control study evaluating VE of pentavalent vaccine (DTP-Hib-HepB) against rotavirus acute gastroenteritis (AGE).Methods: From ongoing rotavirus surveillance, we defined cases as children 12 weeks to 23 months old with EIA-confirmed rotavirus AGE. We enrolled one community-based and two hospital-based control groups. We collected vaccination status from cards at enrollment, or later in homes, and evaluated VE by logistic regression.Results: We enrolled 91 cases (64 inpatient, 27 outpatient), 252 non-rotavirus AGE facility-based controls (unmatched), 203 non-AGE facility-based controls (age-matched) and 271 community controls (age-matched). Documented receipt of 3 pentavalent doses was 77% among cases and ranged from 81-86% among controls. One percent of cases and 0-2% of controls had no pentavalent doses. The adjusted odds ratio of three versus zero doses for being a case was 3.27 (95% CI 0.01-1010) for community controls and 0.69 (95% CI 0.06-7.75) for non-rotavirus hospital-based AGE controls, translating to VE of -227% and 31%, respectively, with wide confidence intervals. (No facility-based non-AGE controls were unvaccinated.) Similar results were found for ≥2 pentavalent doses and for severe rotavirus AGE.Conclusions: The study showed that it is feasible to carry out a real case control in the study area, but this needs to be done as soon as the vaccine is introduced to capture the real impact. Sham case-control or pilot studies before vaccine introduction can be useful in designing case-control VE studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number77
JournalBMC infectious diseases
Volume14
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 11 2014
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Case-control
  • Rotavirus
  • Vaccine effectiveness

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases

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