A score to predict and stratify risk of tuberculosis in adult contacts of tuberculosis index cases: A prospective derivation and external validation cohort study

Matthew J. Saunders, Tom Wingfield, Marco A. Tovar, Matthew R. Baldwin, Sumona Datta, Karine Zevallos, Rosario Montoya, Teresa R. Valencia, Jon S. Friedland, Larry H. Moulton, Robert H. Gilman, Carlton A. Evans

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

Abstract

Background: Contacts of tuberculosis index cases are at increased risk of developing tuberculosis. Screening, preventive therapy, and surveillance for tuberculosis are underused interventions in contacts, particularly adults. We developed a score to predict risk of tuberculosis in adult contacts of tuberculosis index cases. Methods: In 2002-06, we recruited contacts aged 15 years or older of index cases with pulmonary tuberculosis who lived in desert shanty towns in Ventanilla, Peru. We followed up contacts for tuberculosis until February, 2016. We used a Cox proportional hazards model to identify index case, contact, and household risk factors for tuberculosis from which to derive a score and classify contacts as low, medium, or high risk. We validated the score in an urban community recruited in Callao, Peru, in 2014-15. Findings: In the derivation cohort, we identified 2017 contacts of 715 index cases, and median follow-up was 10·7 years (IQR 9·5-11·8). 178 (9%) of 2017 contacts developed tuberculosis during 19 147 person-years of follow-up (incidence 0·93 per 100 person-years, 95% CI 0·80-1·08). Risk factors for tuberculosis were body-mass index, previous tuberculosis, age, sustained exposure to the index case, the index case being in a male patient, lower community household socioeconomic position, indoor air pollution, previous tuberculosis among household members, and living in a household with a low number of windows per room. The 10-year risks of tuberculosis in the low-risk, medium-risk, and high-risk groups were, respectively, 2·8% (95% CI 1·7-4·4), 6·2% (4·8-8·1), and 20·6% (17·3-24·4). The 535 (27%) contacts classified as high risk accounted for 60% of the tuberculosis identified during follow-up. The score predicted tuberculosis independently of tuberculin skin test and index-case drug sensitivity results. In the external validation cohort, 65 (3%) of 1910 contacts developed tuberculosis during 3771 person-years of follow-up (incidence 1·7 per 100 person-years, 95% CI 1·4-2·2). The 2·5-year risks of tuberculosis in the low-risk, medium-risk, and high-risk groups were, respectively, 1·4% (95% CI 0·7-2·8), 3·9% (2·5-5·9), and 8·6%· (5·9-12·6). Interpretation: Our externally validated risk score could predict and stratify 10-year risk of developing tuberculosis in adult contacts, and could be used to prioritise tuberculosis control interventions for people most likely to benefit. Funding: Wellcome Trust, Department for International Development Civil Society Challenge Fund, Joint Global Health Trials consortium, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Imperial College National Institutes of Health Research Biomedical Research Centre, Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics, Sir Halley Stewart Trust, WHO, TB REACH, and Innovation for Health and Development.

LanguageEnglish (US)
JournalThe Lancet Infectious Diseases
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2017

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Validation Studies
Tuberculosis
Cohort Studies
Peru
Incidence
cyclo(Arg-Pro)
Indoor Air Pollution
Tuberculin Test
National Institutes of Health (U.S.)
Skin Tests
Pulmonary Tuberculosis
Proportional Hazards Models
Biomedical Research
Body Mass Index
Health
Research
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Therapeutics
Global Health

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

A score to predict and stratify risk of tuberculosis in adult contacts of tuberculosis index cases : A prospective derivation and external validation cohort study. / Saunders, Matthew J.; Wingfield, Tom; Tovar, Marco A.; Baldwin, Matthew R.; Datta, Sumona; Zevallos, Karine; Montoya, Rosario; Valencia, Teresa R.; Friedland, Jon S.; Moulton, Larry H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Evans, Carlton A.

In: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 2017.

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

Saunders, Matthew J. ; Wingfield, Tom ; Tovar, Marco A. ; Baldwin, Matthew R. ; Datta, Sumona ; Zevallos, Karine ; Montoya, Rosario ; Valencia, Teresa R. ; Friedland, Jon S. ; Moulton, Larry H. ; Gilman, Robert H. ; Evans, Carlton A./ A score to predict and stratify risk of tuberculosis in adult contacts of tuberculosis index cases : A prospective derivation and external validation cohort study. In: The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2017
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abstract = "Background: Contacts of tuberculosis index cases are at increased risk of developing tuberculosis. Screening, preventive therapy, and surveillance for tuberculosis are underused interventions in contacts, particularly adults. We developed a score to predict risk of tuberculosis in adult contacts of tuberculosis index cases. Methods: In 2002-06, we recruited contacts aged 15 years or older of index cases with pulmonary tuberculosis who lived in desert shanty towns in Ventanilla, Peru. We followed up contacts for tuberculosis until February, 2016. We used a Cox proportional hazards model to identify index case, contact, and household risk factors for tuberculosis from which to derive a score and classify contacts as low, medium, or high risk. We validated the score in an urban community recruited in Callao, Peru, in 2014-15. Findings: In the derivation cohort, we identified 2017 contacts of 715 index cases, and median follow-up was 10·7 years (IQR 9·5-11·8). 178 (9%) of 2017 contacts developed tuberculosis during 19 147 person-years of follow-up (incidence 0·93 per 100 person-years, 95% CI 0·80-1·08). Risk factors for tuberculosis were body-mass index, previous tuberculosis, age, sustained exposure to the index case, the index case being in a male patient, lower community household socioeconomic position, indoor air pollution, previous tuberculosis among household members, and living in a household with a low number of windows per room. The 10-year risks of tuberculosis in the low-risk, medium-risk, and high-risk groups were, respectively, 2·8% (95% CI 1·7-4·4), 6·2% (4·8-8·1), and 20·6% (17·3-24·4). The 535 (27%) contacts classified as high risk accounted for 60% of the tuberculosis identified during follow-up. The score predicted tuberculosis independently of tuberculin skin test and index-case drug sensitivity results. In the external validation cohort, 65 (3%) of 1910 contacts developed tuberculosis during 3771 person-years of follow-up (incidence 1·7 per 100 person-years, 95% CI 1·4-2·2). The 2·5-year risks of tuberculosis in the low-risk, medium-risk, and high-risk groups were, respectively, 1·4% (95% CI 0·7-2·8), 3·9% (2·5-5·9), and 8·6%· (5·9-12·6). Interpretation: Our externally validated risk score could predict and stratify 10-year risk of developing tuberculosis in adult contacts, and could be used to prioritise tuberculosis control interventions for people most likely to benefit. Funding: Wellcome Trust, Department for International Development Civil Society Challenge Fund, Joint Global Health Trials consortium, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Imperial College National Institutes of Health Research Biomedical Research Centre, Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics, Sir Halley Stewart Trust, WHO, TB REACH, and Innovation for Health and Development.",
author = "Saunders, {Matthew J.} and Tom Wingfield and Tovar, {Marco A.} and Baldwin, {Matthew R.} and Sumona Datta and Karine Zevallos and Rosario Montoya and Valencia, {Teresa R.} and Friedland, {Jon S.} and Moulton, {Larry H.} and Gilman, {Robert H.} and Evans, {Carlton A.}",
year = "2017",
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T1 - A score to predict and stratify risk of tuberculosis in adult contacts of tuberculosis index cases

T2 - The Lancet Infectious Diseases

AU - Saunders,Matthew J.

AU - Wingfield,Tom

AU - Tovar,Marco A.

AU - Baldwin,Matthew R.

AU - Datta,Sumona

AU - Zevallos,Karine

AU - Montoya,Rosario

AU - Valencia,Teresa R.

AU - Friedland,Jon S.

AU - Moulton,Larry H.

AU - Gilman,Robert H.

AU - Evans,Carlton A.

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - Background: Contacts of tuberculosis index cases are at increased risk of developing tuberculosis. Screening, preventive therapy, and surveillance for tuberculosis are underused interventions in contacts, particularly adults. We developed a score to predict risk of tuberculosis in adult contacts of tuberculosis index cases. Methods: In 2002-06, we recruited contacts aged 15 years or older of index cases with pulmonary tuberculosis who lived in desert shanty towns in Ventanilla, Peru. We followed up contacts for tuberculosis until February, 2016. We used a Cox proportional hazards model to identify index case, contact, and household risk factors for tuberculosis from which to derive a score and classify contacts as low, medium, or high risk. We validated the score in an urban community recruited in Callao, Peru, in 2014-15. Findings: In the derivation cohort, we identified 2017 contacts of 715 index cases, and median follow-up was 10·7 years (IQR 9·5-11·8). 178 (9%) of 2017 contacts developed tuberculosis during 19 147 person-years of follow-up (incidence 0·93 per 100 person-years, 95% CI 0·80-1·08). Risk factors for tuberculosis were body-mass index, previous tuberculosis, age, sustained exposure to the index case, the index case being in a male patient, lower community household socioeconomic position, indoor air pollution, previous tuberculosis among household members, and living in a household with a low number of windows per room. The 10-year risks of tuberculosis in the low-risk, medium-risk, and high-risk groups were, respectively, 2·8% (95% CI 1·7-4·4), 6·2% (4·8-8·1), and 20·6% (17·3-24·4). The 535 (27%) contacts classified as high risk accounted for 60% of the tuberculosis identified during follow-up. The score predicted tuberculosis independently of tuberculin skin test and index-case drug sensitivity results. In the external validation cohort, 65 (3%) of 1910 contacts developed tuberculosis during 3771 person-years of follow-up (incidence 1·7 per 100 person-years, 95% CI 1·4-2·2). The 2·5-year risks of tuberculosis in the low-risk, medium-risk, and high-risk groups were, respectively, 1·4% (95% CI 0·7-2·8), 3·9% (2·5-5·9), and 8·6%· (5·9-12·6). Interpretation: Our externally validated risk score could predict and stratify 10-year risk of developing tuberculosis in adult contacts, and could be used to prioritise tuberculosis control interventions for people most likely to benefit. Funding: Wellcome Trust, Department for International Development Civil Society Challenge Fund, Joint Global Health Trials consortium, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Imperial College National Institutes of Health Research Biomedical Research Centre, Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics, Sir Halley Stewart Trust, WHO, TB REACH, and Innovation for Health and Development.

AB - Background: Contacts of tuberculosis index cases are at increased risk of developing tuberculosis. Screening, preventive therapy, and surveillance for tuberculosis are underused interventions in contacts, particularly adults. We developed a score to predict risk of tuberculosis in adult contacts of tuberculosis index cases. Methods: In 2002-06, we recruited contacts aged 15 years or older of index cases with pulmonary tuberculosis who lived in desert shanty towns in Ventanilla, Peru. We followed up contacts for tuberculosis until February, 2016. We used a Cox proportional hazards model to identify index case, contact, and household risk factors for tuberculosis from which to derive a score and classify contacts as low, medium, or high risk. We validated the score in an urban community recruited in Callao, Peru, in 2014-15. Findings: In the derivation cohort, we identified 2017 contacts of 715 index cases, and median follow-up was 10·7 years (IQR 9·5-11·8). 178 (9%) of 2017 contacts developed tuberculosis during 19 147 person-years of follow-up (incidence 0·93 per 100 person-years, 95% CI 0·80-1·08). Risk factors for tuberculosis were body-mass index, previous tuberculosis, age, sustained exposure to the index case, the index case being in a male patient, lower community household socioeconomic position, indoor air pollution, previous tuberculosis among household members, and living in a household with a low number of windows per room. The 10-year risks of tuberculosis in the low-risk, medium-risk, and high-risk groups were, respectively, 2·8% (95% CI 1·7-4·4), 6·2% (4·8-8·1), and 20·6% (17·3-24·4). The 535 (27%) contacts classified as high risk accounted for 60% of the tuberculosis identified during follow-up. The score predicted tuberculosis independently of tuberculin skin test and index-case drug sensitivity results. In the external validation cohort, 65 (3%) of 1910 contacts developed tuberculosis during 3771 person-years of follow-up (incidence 1·7 per 100 person-years, 95% CI 1·4-2·2). The 2·5-year risks of tuberculosis in the low-risk, medium-risk, and high-risk groups were, respectively, 1·4% (95% CI 0·7-2·8), 3·9% (2·5-5·9), and 8·6%· (5·9-12·6). Interpretation: Our externally validated risk score could predict and stratify 10-year risk of developing tuberculosis in adult contacts, and could be used to prioritise tuberculosis control interventions for people most likely to benefit. Funding: Wellcome Trust, Department for International Development Civil Society Challenge Fund, Joint Global Health Trials consortium, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Imperial College National Institutes of Health Research Biomedical Research Centre, Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics, Sir Halley Stewart Trust, WHO, TB REACH, and Innovation for Health and Development.

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