A robust fluoroscope tracking (FTRAC) fiducial

Ameet Kumax Jain, Tabish Mustufa, Yu Zhou, E. Clif Burdette, Gregory S. Chirikjian, Gabor Fichtinger

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


Purpose: C-arm fluoroscopy is ubiquitous in contemporary surgery, but it lacks the ability to accurately reconstruct 3D information. A major obstacle in fluoroscopic reconstruction is discerning the pose of the Xray image, in 3D space. Optical/magnetic trackers are prohibitively expensive, intrusive and cumbersome. Method: We present single-image-based fluoroscope tracking (FTRAC) with the use of an external radiographic fiducial consisting of a mathematically optimized set of points, lines, and ellipses. The fiducial encodes six degrees of freedom in a single image by creating a unique view from any direction. A non-linear optimizer can rapidly compute the pose of the fiducial using this image. The current embodiment has salient attributes: small dimensions (3×3×5 cm), it need not be close to the anatomy of interest and can be segmented automatically. Results: We tested the fiducial and the pose recovery method on synthetic data and also experimentally on a precisely machined mechanical phantom. Pose recovery had an error of 0.56 mm in translation and 0.33° in orientation. Object reconstruction had a mean error of 0.53 mm with 0.16 mm STD. Conclusion: The method offers accuracies similar to commercial tracking systems, and is sufficiently robust for intra-operative quantitative C-arm fluoroscopy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationProgress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE
EditorsR.L. Galloway, Jr., K.R. Cleary
Number of pages12
StatePublished - 2005
EventMedical Imaging 2005 - Visualization, Image-Guided Procedures, and Display - San Diego, CA, United States
Duration: Feb 13 2005Feb 15 2005


OtherMedical Imaging 2005 - Visualization, Image-Guided Procedures, and Display
CountryUnited States
CitySan Diego, CA


  • C-arm
  • Fluoroscopy
  • Prostate Brachytherapy
  • Reconstruction
  • Registration
  • Tracking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)

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  • Cite this

    Jain, A. K., Mustufa, T., Zhou, Y., Burdette, E. C., Chirikjian, G. S., & Fichtinger, G. (2005). A robust fluoroscope tracking (FTRAC) fiducial. In R. L. Galloway, Jr., & K. R. Cleary (Eds.), Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE (II ed., Vol. 5744, pp. 798-809). [91] https://doi.org/10.1117/12.595782