Purpose: To prospectively evaluate visual outcomes and complications during and after cataract surgery with or without prophylactic sclerostomy in nanophthalmic eyes with visually significant cataract. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Methods: Sixty nanophthalmic eyes of 60 patients with visually significant cataract were randomly assigned to cataract surgery alone (control group, n = 31) or cataract surgery with concomitant prophylactic sclerostomy (sclerostomy group, n = 29). Surgery was performed using phacoemulsification or manual small-incision cataract surgery (SICS) based on the LOCS III grading score. Group differences in intraoperative and postoperative complications were analyzed and risk factors assessed. Results: Fewer complications were noted in eyes receiving sclerostomy (5/29, 17.2%) as compared to control group eyes (12/31, 38.7%), though differences were marginally significant (P = .065). Four control group, but no sclerostomy group, eyes developed postoperative uveal effusions (P = .04). In multivariable models, sclerostomy decreased the odds of an intraoperative or postoperative complication by 80% (odds ratio [OR] = 0.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.04-0.92, P = .039); SICS was associated with a significantly higher risk of complications as compared to phacoemulsification (OR = 5.95, 95% CI = 1.49-23.73, P = .012), while high preoperative intraocular pressure (OR = 4.54, 95% CI = 0.99-20.9, P = .052) and greater lens thickness (OR = 3.38, 95% CI = 0.88-12.91, P = .075) demonstrated a marginally significant association. Conclusions: Cataract surgery in eyes with nanophthalmos is associated with a high risk for vision-threatening complications. Performing a simultaneous prophylactic sclerostomy with cataract surgery reduces complication rates, particularly uveal effusions. Cataract surgery at earlier stages by phacoemulsification may be more beneficial than undergoing manual SICS.
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