FLT3-ITD-mutated acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains a therapeutic challenge. FLT3 inhibition in the setting of minimal residual disease and a new immune system via allogeneic transplantation offers a promise of improved survival for these patients. We performed a prospective study of patients with FLT3-ITD AML undergoing allogeneic transplant that was conducted to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and outcome of sorafenib administered peritransplant. Sorafenib dosing was individualized, starting at 200 mg twice a day (BID), and titrated based on tolerability or toxicities until a tolerable dose was identified. Forty-four patients, with a median age of 52 years, undergoing allogeneic transplant were started on sorafenib in the peritransplant period (21 pretransplant). The median duration of post-transplant follow-up was 27.6 months (range, 5.2 to 60.4). Overall survival was 76% at both 24 and 36 months. Event-free survival at 24 and 36 months was 74% and 64%, respectively. Ten patients died in the post-transplant period, with 6 deaths due to relapsed leukemia and 4 from transplant-associated toxicity. Tolerable doses ranged from 200 mg every other day to 400 mg BID with similar exposure. Correlative studies evaluating FLT3 inhibition via a plasma inhibitory activity assay showed consistent inhibition of FLT3 at all tolerability-determined dosing levels. Sorafenib is well tolerated in the peritransplant setting irrespective of the conditioning intensity or the donor source. Our findings indicate that sorafenib dosing can be individualized in the post-transplantation setting according to patient tolerability. This approach results in effective in vivo FLT3 inhibition and yields encouraging survival results.
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