Introduction: The rapid and accurate diagnosis of HIV-Associated tuberculosis (TB), timely initiation of curative or preventative treatment and assurance of favourable treatment outcomes is a complex process. The current system of monitoring and reporting TB diagnosis and treatment does not include several key aspects of the care cascade, and may obscure systematic bottlenecks, inefficiencies or sources of sub-optimal care. Methods: We critically reviewed the current World Health Organizations recommended system of monitoring and reporting, and identified the following key deficiencies that could limit the ability of healthcare workers to identify structural problems in the provision of TB/HIV care. Results: We identified the following key deficiencies in the current monitoring and evaluation system: (1) an emphasis on national-level reporting and programmatic analysis results in a loss of granularity; (2) the absence of a general framework to anchor indicators in relation to one another as well as the overall goals for TB/HIV collaborative activities; (3) de-linking of TB treatment indicators from those for screening and diagnosis; (4) few indicators are tied to suggested times for completion of an activity. We defined three distinct stages comprising the cascade of HIV-Associated TB diagnosis and treatment: (1) Screening & Diagnosis, (2) Treatment and (3) Preventive Therapy. We detailed major steps within each stage, described potential sources of variability, and proposed data elements, process indicators, main outcomes, and retention calculations for each stage. Conclusions: This proposed framework of monitoring is novel in its focus on a cohort experience through the entire scope of the care cascade from screening and TB diagnosis through curative or preventive treatment. This approach can be applied to all settings at clinic, district or national level, and used to identify crucial areas for improvement in order to maximize health outcomes for all those affected by the dual epidemics of TB and HIV.
- Cascade of care
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Infectious Diseases