Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is a systemic small-vessel vasculitis. When involving the lungs, small-vessel vasculitides typically cause capillaritis, leading to diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and submassive hemoptysis. In contrast, massive hemoptysis primarily originates from the bronchial arteries; therefore, small-vessel vasculitis is not considered when a patient presents with massive hemoptysis. The authors describe a patient with CSS who presented with the novel finding of massive hemoptysis. Computed tomography scans lacked alveolar infiltrates and bronchoalveolar lavage lacked hemosiderin-laden macrophages. Bronchoscopy demonstrated a raised mucosal lesion in the right mainstem bronchus and computed tomography angiogram revealed aberrant dilated bronchial arteries underlying the same region, suggesting this as the source of the hemoptysis. To the authors' knowledge, the present report describes the first reported case of CSS to present with massive hemoptysis with likely involvement of the bronchial arterial circulation. CSS should be considered in patients with unexplained massive hemoptysis.
- Aberrant bronchial arteries
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine