A preliminary neuroimaging study of preschool children with ADHD

E. M. Mahone, D. Crocetti, M. E. Ranta, A. Gaddis, M. Cataldo, K. J. Slifer, M. B. Denckla, S. H. Mostofsky

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

Abstract

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder that, by current definition, has onset prior to age 7 years. MRI studies have provided some insight into brain differences associated with ADHD, but thus far have almost exclusively focused on children ages 7 years and older. To better understand the neurobiological development of ADHD, cortical and subcortical brain development should be systematically examined in younger children presenting with symptoms of the disorder. High-resolution anatomical (MPRAGE) images, acquired on a 3.0T scanner, were analyzed in a total of 26 preschoolers, ages 4-5 years (13 with ADHD, 13 controls, matched on age and sex). The ADHD sample was diagnosed using DSM-IV criteria, and screened for language disorders. Cortical regions were delineated and measured using automated methods in Freesurfer; basal ganglia structures were manually delineated. Children with ADHD showed significantly reduced caudate volumes bilaterally; in contrast there were no significant group differences in cortical volume or thickness in this age range. After controlling for age and total cerebral volume, left caudate volume was a significant predictor of hyperactive/impulsive, but not inattentive symptom severity. Anomalous basal ganglia, particularly caudate, development appears to play an important role among children presenting with early onset symptoms of ADHD.

LanguageEnglish (US)
Pages1009-1028
Number of pages20
JournalClinical Neuropsychologist
Volume25
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2011

Fingerprint

Neuroimaging
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Preschool children
Preschool Children
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
Basal Ganglia
Onset
Brain
Group Differences
Language Disorders
Developmental Disorders
Predictors
Preschoolers
Scanner
Brain Development
Thickness
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

Keywords

  • ADHD
  • Basal ganglia
  • Caudate
  • Cognitive
  • Cortical
  • Hyperactivity
  • MRI
  • Preschool
  • Striatum

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

A preliminary neuroimaging study of preschool children with ADHD. / Mahone, E. M.; Crocetti, D.; Ranta, M. E.; Gaddis, A.; Cataldo, M.; Slifer, K. J.; Denckla, M. B.; Mostofsky, S. H.

In: Clinical Neuropsychologist, Vol. 25, No. 6, 08.2011, p. 1009-1028.

Research output: Research - peer-reviewArticle

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